Sustainable tourism


After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

  1. explain the concepts of ‘paradigm shift’ and ‘paradigm nudge’ and their relevance to contemporary tourism

  2. indicate how conventional mass tourism is related to the dominant Western environmental paradigm

  3. define sustainable tourism and show how this is related to both the dominant Western environmental paradigm, the green paradigm and sustainable development

  4. identify key indicators that gauge sustainability and describe their strengths and shortcomings

  5. list the reasons for the tourism industry’s adoption of the principle of sustainable tourism, and explain the advantages that larger companies have in its implementation

  6. describe the patterns of sustainable tourism practice within the tourist industry

  7. list examples of alternative tourism and discuss their advantages and disadvantages

  8. explain how ecotourism differs from other nature-based tourism, and describe its three distinctive characteristics318

  9. discuss the positive and negative arguments for encouraging tourism within protected areas

  10. critique the broad context model of destination development scenarios as a framework for describing the evolutionary possibilities for tourist destinations.


As manifested in the Butler sequence, the destination cycle concept suggests that tourism driven only by free market forces degrades ...

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