Chapter 1

The Framework of Urban Built Environments


This chapter is concerned with the framework of urban built environments and related energy issues; it discusses some progress in nearly zero energy research and practice, with particular reference to the Mediterranean context and the Athens metropolitan area. This chapter gives a review of the main energy-related issues in an urban environment, with a particular reference to a background description of the Mediterranean climate and its cooling demand related to the heat island phenomenon; a brief review of the current policy background related to nearly zero energy buildings (nZEBs) with some notes on the definition of nZEBs with regard to recent European directives; and a concise review ...

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