8.6 BRAIN–MACHINE INTERFACES
Brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) enable users to control devices using electroencephalographic
(EEG) signals from the scalp or with single-neuron activity from inside the brain. BCIs aim to con-
trol limbs as smoothly as possible. Leuthardt and colleagues pointed out that electrocorticographic
(ECoG) activity recorded from the surface of the brain allows controlling a one-dimensional
computer cursor rapidly and accurately (Leuthardt et al., 2004). Therefore, they suggested that an
ECoG-based BCI could be suggested for people with severe motor disabilities as a nonmuscular
communication and control option that is more powerful than EEG-based BCIs. This BCI is po-
tentially more stable and less traumatic than BCIs based upon electrodes penetrating the brain. The
option of BCI to control tremor is under investigation.
8.7 ASSISTIVE THERAPY
A mouse computer is available for tremor sufferers, ﬁltering the shaking component in movement.
A digital smoothing ﬁlter is placed between the mouse motion sensors and the operating system
software computing the coordinates of the cursor.
FIGURE 8.6: Overall view of Wotas (wearable orthosis for tremor assessment and suppression) acti-
vated by DC motors.