The highest value-added products use batch operations. Batches can take days to complete and be worth millions of dollars. In many cases bad batches cannot be fixed downstream, thus bad batches must be avoided. There are many, techniques for making batches more repeatable and faster by better monitoring and control. Essential are an appreciation of automation and an understanding of the nonself-regulation inherent in a batch process and the implications in terms of control strategy and controller tuning.
Pharmaceutical and specialty chemical manufacturing tend to use batch unit operations because these mimic the lab bench top operations in product research and development (R&D) ...