The first definition of the Ultra Wide Band Systems (UWB) for commercial applications was provided in February 2002 by the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) [FCC 02]. This definition, based on the occupied bandwidth, defines as Ultra Wide Band any system having a bandwidth higher than or equal to 500 MHz or having a ratio between its carrier frequency and the occupied bandwidth higher than 25%.
This definition made it possible to count various forms of UWB waveforms with all the criteria. Among the most conventional UWB waveforms, we can note the Impulse Radio waveform and the MBOFDM (Multi Band Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing) waveform. However, the definition stated by the FCC allowed other forms of less conventional waveforms to be created. Among these we can detail the Frequency Hopping waveforms on the one hand and the chirp waveform on the other hand.
These various forms of UWB made it possible to define two main categories of applications:
– High and very high data rate UWB applications enabling wireless communications with a data rate of 480 Mb/s or even 1 Gb/s. For these applications, the MB-OFDM solution was defined in various standards.
– Low data rate UWB applications having, in addition to communication services, localization services inside buildings, thus having a service comparable to GPS (global positioning system) but inside.