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UML and Data Modeling: A Reconciliation by David Hay

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The first user interfaces made use of 10-character per second teletype machines.

These advances in programming structure, both in language design and methodology, managed the executable program code, but did not address data well. The relative levels of abstraction addressed by a structured program design did not translate into equivalent levels of abstraction for the data the programs manipulated. As programs got larger, the code could be modularized, but there was nothing in the syntax that supported a systematic way to manage the data. Parameters could be passed between modules, but there was no consistency in approach. Global data, contained in COBOL DATA DIVISIONS and Fortran COMMON statements, could ...

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