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UML and Data Modeling: A Reconciliation by David Hay

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In 1972, the American National Standards Institutes Standards Planning and Requirements Committee (SPARC) established a Study Group on Database Architectures. In February of 1975, they published an interim report which explained in detail the gross architecture they had developed for information systems.[67]

At the heart of the report was the three-schema approach to database management. The three were:

·         Conceptual Schema – This embodies the real world view of the enterprise being modeled in the data base. It represents the current best model or way of doing business for the enterprise.

·         External SchemaThe various users of the database management system operate on sub-sets of ...

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