12PROXIES AND THE REFLECTION API

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ECMAScript 5 and ECMAScript 6 were both developed with demystifying JavaScript functionality in mind. For example, JavaScript environments contained nonenumerable and nonwritable object properties prior to ECMAScript 5, but developers couldn’t define their own nonenumerable or nonwritable properties. ECMAScript 5 included the Object.defineProperty() method, which allowed developers to do what JavaScript engines could do already.

ECMAScript 6 gives developers further access to JavaScript engine capabilities by adding built-in objects. To allow developers to create built-in objects, the language exposes the inner ...

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