1 Also known as pictorial superiority effect.

2 The seminal work on the picture superiority effect is “Why Are Pictures Easier to Recall than Words?” by Allan Paivio, T. B. Rogers, and Padric C. Smythe, Psychonomic Science, 1968, vol. 11(4), p. 137–138.

3 See, for example, “Conditions for a Picture-Superiority Effect on Consumer Memory” by Terry L. Childers and Michael J. Houston, Journal of Consumer Research, 1984, vol. 11, p. 643–654.

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