Chapter 19. Programming Design

Introduction

Programs need to be planned before the actual programming begins. A little planning up front will save time and frustration later.

For beginners, the hardest part is learning to think like a computer. There are a few basic concepts that will help.

First, a computer performs instructions one step at a time. Second, the computer does not have previous knowledge about the problem to be solved. Third, the computer needs to be told everything step by step, and it only knows what you tell it.

All computer programs do the same thing. They instruct a computer to accept data (input), to manipulate the data (process), and to produce reports or information back to a user (output).

So where do you start? Start by answering ...

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