119
Chapter 8
Critically Low Hispanic
College Graduation Rates
and a Clear Absence of
Hispanic High-Level
Administrators in Arizona,
California, and Texas
Ramona Ortega-Liston and RaJade M. Berry-James
Contents
Introduction ......................................................................................................120
eoretical Underpinnings ................................................................................121
A Review of Narcotics Trafficking Literature ...................................................... 124
Restating Research Questions in the Context of U.S.–Mexico
Drug Trafficking ................................................................................................126
Educational Attainment by Hispanics ...........................................................126
Population and Employment Demographics for the State of Arizona ............127
Population and Employment Demographics for the State of California ........131
Return on Investment .......................................................................................132
Importance of Early Career Challenges, Management Trainee Programs,
Education, and Mentoring to Job Success .....................................................134
120 ◾  Using the “Narcotrafico” Threat to Build Public Administration
Introduction
e war on drugs in the United States and Mexico aects the economy, import/
export relations, socio-political climates, and the safety and welfare of Americans
and Mexican nationals (Klingner, 2000; Ledwith, 2000; Klingner and Pallavicini
Campos, 2002; Finckenauer et al., 2007; Duran-Martinez et al., 2010; Jeszeck,
2011; Bjelopera and Finklea, 2012; Luce, 2012; Molzahn et al., 2012). e war on
drugs may also aect rapidly growing trade relations between the two countries.
Luce (2012) reported that “Mexico is rapidly becoming as important to the US
economy as China” (Financial Times). Differing headline perspectives indicate that
crime has increased in border states (Fox News, 2010; Jeszeck, 2011), but contrast-
ing media views suggest that there is a drop in the rate of illegal crossings and
deaths from trying to cross unforgiving desert terrain (Wagner, 2010; Associated
Press, 2013); however, no-one suggests that the war on drugs is over or should be
discontinued. ese important issues will be explored in some detail.
is chapter examines what the war on drugs means for Hispanics residing in
border states. U.S. Census information and demographic statistics show that Latino/
Hispanics are the largest ethnic group in the United States, with large numbers of
them living in border states. Census demographics show that in 2011 Hispanics
numbered 52 million, and they also have been the fastest growing, increasing by
3.1% since 2010. is population growth propelled the Latino population to 16.7%
in 2011—up from 16.3% in 2010 (United States Census Bureau, 2012). Increases
in the Latino population are due largely to the proximity of Mexico to the south-
ern border of the United States. Arizona, California, and Texas are border states
that are most impacted by border issues, including illegal immigration and drug
traffickingamong many others. To combat border state issues such as drug traf-
ficking and illegal immigration, the budget for the U.S. Border Patrol has increased
from $262,647, in 1990, to $3,549,295 in 2011 (U.S. Border Patrol Statistics). e
significant increase in the budget underscores the seriousness of issues confronting
border states.
Clarification of Terminology:
Latinos and Hispanics are terms used interchangeably to mean all Spanish-
surnamed individuals or individuals who have been identified and catego-
rized as “Hispanic” in U.S. Census and government reports (U.S. Census,
2012).
Mentoring Influences on Careers ..................................................................135
Hispanics in Mentoring Relationships ..........................................................135
Conclusions ......................................................................................................136
Future Studies ...................................................................................................137
References .........................................................................................................138

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