1.1. The ISO/OSI Reference Model

The International Standards Organization (ISO) was one of the first organizations to define such a set of layers in the Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model [Day and Zimmermann 1983]. It defines the stack of layers shown in Figure 1.1 as a set of standards for the interfaces a layer should provide to the next layer up the stack and the services a layer should offer. Despite the fact that the ISO/OSI model has been overshadowed by the Internet protocols, its terminology is still in use. We therefore introduce the ISO/OSI protocol stack, which includes the following seven layers.

Figure 1.1. The ISO/OSI Reference Model

The physical layer: The physical layer, also referred to as Layer 1 or L1, deals ...

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