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Wellbeing: A Complete Reference Guide, Volume I, Wellbeing in Children and Families by Cary L. Cooper, Susan H. Landry

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17

Neighborhood Effects and Young Children's Outcomes

Dafna Kohen

University of Ottawa, Canada

Leanne Findlay

Health Analysis Division of Statistics Canada, Canada

A substantial body of research over the past two decades has examined the impact of neighborhood characteristics on young children's outcomes. From the seminal work of Brooks-Gunn, Duncan, and Aber (1997) and the review by Leventhal and Brooks-Gunn (2000) much work in the area has confirmed that neighborhood effects, although small relative to family-level effects, have an impact on children's outcomes.

The outcomes most commonly examined have included verbal ability, cognitive skills, behavior problems, and school readiness for preschool-aged children (Benson & Borman, 2010; Brody et al., 2003; Carpiano, Lloyd, & Hertzman, 2009; Chase-Lansdale & Gordon, 1996; Curtis, Dooley, & Phipps, 2004; Dupéré, Leventhal, Crosnoe, & Dion, 2010; Lapointe, Ford, & Zumbo, 2007; O'Brien Caughy & Campo, 2006; Oliver, Dunn, Kohen, & Hertzman, 2007; Vaden-Kiernan et al., 2010) as well as behavioral and educational outcomes such as time spent on homework, math scores, standardized educational outcomes, and high-school graduation for school-aged children (Ainsworth, 2002; Greenman, Bodovski, & Reed, 2011; Hansen et al., 2011). Cognitive outcomes have generally shown more consistent associations with neighborhood characteristics than behavioral outcomes (Barbarin et al., 2006; Hansen et al., 2011; Kershaw, Forer, Irwin, Hertzman, & Lapointe, ...

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