Afterword: The Winds Message, American Cryptology, and History

The Impact and the Intelligence Value of the Winds Messages

Within the tempest of controversy about the nature and amount of available intelligence, especially communications intelligence, and its dissemination prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Winds message imbroglio should have been no more than the smallest eddy. The purpose of the messages, as indicated in the instructions of 19 November, was limited. The alerts were intended merely to warn Tokyo's diplomats that relations between Japan and the United States, Great Britain, or the Soviet Union were "in danger." If such a situation had arisen at the time that warranted an alert, then Japan's diplomats would be warned via ...

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