1. Joan C. Williams et al., Climate Control: Gender and Racial Bias in Engineering? Center for WorkLife Law and Society of Women Engineers, October 2016.

2. This study used the résumés of 80 higher-class and 78 lower-class men; the candidates were identically qualified. It found that 16.25 percent of the higher-class men received interview invitations, but only one lower-class man did. Lauren A. Rivera and András Tilcsik, “Class Advantage, Commitment Penalty: The Gendered Effect of Social Class Signals in an Elite Labor Market,” American Sociological Review 81, no. 6 (2016): 1097–1131.

3. Mark Lilla, The Once and Future Liberal: After Identity Politics (New York: Harper, 2017).

4. Economic Policy Institute, “The Productivity–Pay ...

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