Communication (5–10%)

4.1 Communication Skills

4.2 Stakeholder Relationships

4.3 Sample Practice Questions

4.1 Communication Skills

Topics such as communication process, barriers to communication, organizational dynamics, and impact of computerization on communication are discussed in this section.

(a) Communication Process

One thing that is common to all four functions of management (i.e., planning, organizing, directing, and controlling) is communication. Surveys have shown that 80% of a manager’s time is spent on communication and 20% on other activities. Management scholar Keith Davis1 has defined communications as “the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another person.” Communication involves two or more people. The effectiveness of organizational communication can be increased with clear verbal and written messages with little or no noise. Kreitner2 describes communication as a chain made up of identifiable links—sender, encoding, medium, decoding, receiver, and feedback (see Exhibit 4.1). The communication chain is only as strong as its weakest link.

EXHIBIT 4.1 Links in the Communication Chain


(i) Sender

The sender is an individual or a group of people whose goal is to convey or transmit the message to a receiver in the best possible media and in the fastest way.

(ii) Encoding

The objective of encoding is to translate internal thought ...

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