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Wind Energy Engineering

Book Description

Wind Energy Engineering: A Handbook for Onshore and Offshore Wind Turbines is the most advanced, up-to-date and research-focused text on all aspects of wind energy engineering. Wind energy is pivotal in global electricity generation and for achieving future essential energy demands and targets. In this fast moving field this must-have edition starts with an in-depth look at the present state of wind integration and distribution worldwide, and continues with a high-level assessment of the advances in turbine technology and how the investment, planning, and economic infrastructure can support those innovations.

Each chapter includes a research overview with a detailed analysis and new case studies looking at how recent research developments can be applied. Written by some of the most forward-thinking professionals in the field and giving a complete examination of one of the most promising and efficient sources of renewable energy, this book is an invaluable reference into this cross-disciplinary field for engineers.

  • Contains analysis of the latest high-level research and explores real world application potential in relation to the developments
  • Uses system international (SI) units and imperial units throughout to appeal to global engineers
  • Offers new case studies from a world expert in the field
  • Covers the latest research developments in this fast moving, vital subject

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. List of Contributors
  6. Preface
  7. Part I: Introduction
    1. Chapter 1. Why Wind Energy?
      1. Abstract
      2. 1.1 Introduction
      3. 1.2 Climate Change
      4. 1.3 Background
      5. 1.4 Advantages of Wind Energy
      6. 1.5 Challenges Facing the Wind Turbine Industry
      7. 1.6 The Potential of Wind Energy Worldwide
      8. References
  8. Part II: Wind Resource and Wind Energy Worldwide
    1. Chapter 2. Wind Power Fundamentals
      1. Abstract
      2. 2.1 Wind Physics Basics: What Is Wind and How Wind Is Generated
      3. 2.2 Wind Types: Brief Overview of Wind Power Meteorology
      4. 2.3 Fundamental Equation of Wind Power: Kinetic Energy Flux and Wind Power Density
      5. 2.4 Wind Power Capture: Efficiency in Extracting Wind Power
      6. 2.5 Conclusion
      7. References
    2. Chapter 3. Estimation of Wind Energy Potential and Prediction of Wind Power
      1. Abstract
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Principles for Successful Development for a Wind Assessment Program
      4. 3.3 Main Aspects of a Wind Assessment Program
      5. 3.4 Estimating Wind Power Based on Wind Speed Measurements
      6. 3.5 Wind Resource Estimation Project: Scope and Methods
      7. 3.6 Further Considerations for Wind Speed Assessment
      8. 3.7 Wind Speed and Power Forecasting
      9. 3.8 Conclusions
      10. References
    3. Chapter 4. Global Potential for Wind-Generated Electricity
      1. Abstract
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Methodology
      4. 4.3 Results
      5. 4.4 Concluding Remarks
      6. Acknowledgments
      7. References
    4. Chapter 5. The Future of Wind Energy Development in China
      1. Abstract
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Wind Energy Development in China
      4. 5.3 Wind Energy Development in China: Barriers and Drivers
      5. 5.4 The Future of Wind Energy Development in China
      6. 5.5 Conclusion
      7. Acknowledgment
      8. References
    5. Chapter 6. Wind Power in the German System—Research and Development for the Transition Toward a Sustainable Energy Future
      1. Abstract
      2. 6.1 Integration of Renewables in Germany and Europe
      3. 6.2 Onshore and Offshore Wind Development
      4. 6.3 Network Operation and Grid Development
      5. 6.4 Further Research and Development for Wind Power Integration
      6. 6.5 Summary
      7. References
  9. Part III: Wind Turbine Technology
    1. Chapter 7. History of Harnessing Wind Power
      1. Abstract
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Wind Machines in Antiquity
      4. 7.3 Islamic Civilization Windmills
      5. 7.4 Medieval European Windmills
      6. 7.5 Aegean and Mediterranean Windmills
      7. 7.6 Dutch and European Windmills
      8. 7.7 The American Windmill
      9. 7.8 Historical Developments
      10. 7.9 Windmills Applications
      11. 7.10 Discussion
      12. References
    2. Chapter 8. Wind Turbine Technologies
      1. Abstract
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Overview of Wind Turbine Components
      4. 8.3 Contemporary Wind Turbine Technologies
      5. 8.4 Conclusions
      6. References
    3. Chapter 9. Aerodynamics and Design of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines
      1. Abstract
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 A Short Description on How a Wind Turbine Works
      4. 9.3 1D Momentum Equations
      5. 9.4 Blade Element Momentum Method
      6. 9.5 Use of Steady Blade Element Momentum Method
      7. 9.6 Aerodynamic Blade Design
      8. 9.7 Unsteady Loads and Fatigue
      9. 9.8 Brief Description of Design Process
      10. References
    4. Chapter 10. Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: Farm and Turbine Design
      1. Abstract
      2. 10.1 Vertical Axis Wind Turbines History
      3. 10.2 Vertical Axis Wind Farms
      4. 10.3 Design Guidelines
      5. 10.4 Summary
      6. References
    5. Chapter 11. Multielement Airfoils for Wind Turbines
      1. Abstract
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Transportation Benefits
      4. 11.3 Structural Benefits
      5. 11.4 Multielement Wind Turbine Blades
      6. 11.5 Other Multielement Wind Turbine Research
      7. 11.6 Discussion
      8. Acknowledgments
      9. References
    6. Chapter 12. Civil Engineering Aspects of a Wind Farm and Wind Turbine Structures
      1. Abstract
      2. 12.1 Energy Challenge
      3. 12.2 Wind Farm and Fukushima Nuclear disaster
      4. 12.3 Wind Farm Site Selection
      5. 12.4 General Arrangement of a Wind Farm
      6. 12.5 Choice of Foundations for a Site
      7. 12.6 Foundation Types
      8. 12.7 Site Layout, Spacing of Turbines, and Geology of the Site
      9. References
    7. Chapter 13. Civil Engineering Challenges Associated With Design of Offshore Wind Turbines With Special Reference to China
      1. Abstract
      2. 13.1 Offshore Wind Potential in China
      3. 13.2 Dynamic Sensitivity of OWT Structures
      4. 13.3 Dynamic Issues in Support Structure Design
      5. 13.4 Types and Nature of the Loads Acting on the Foundations
      6. 13.5 Ground Conditions in Chinese Waters
      7. 13.6 A Note on SLS Design Criteria
      8. 13.7 Challenges in Analysis of Dynamic Soil–Structure Interaction
      9. 13.8 Foundation Design
      10. 13.9 Concluding Remarks
      11. References
    8. Chapter 14. Numerical Methods for SSI Analysis of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations
      1. Abstract
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Types of Numerical Analysis
      4. 14.3 Example Application of Numerical Analysis to Study SSI of Monopile
      5. References
    9. Chapter 15. Reliability of Wind Turbines
      1. Abstract
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Fundamentals
      4. 15.3 Current Status
      5. 15.4 Reliability Engineering
      6. 15.5 Case Studies
      7. 15.6 Conclusions
      8. Acknowledgments
      9. References
    10. Chapter 16. Practical Method to Estimate Foundation Stiffness for Design of Offshore Wind Turbines
      1. Abstract
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Methods to Estimate Foundation Stiffness
      4. 16.3 Obtaining Foundation Stiffness From Standard and Advanced Method
      5. 16.4 Discussion and Application of Foundation Stiffness
      6. Nomenclature
      7. References
    11. Chapter 17. Physical Modeling of Offshore Wind Turbine Model for Prediction of Prototype Response
      1. Abstract
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 Physical Modeling of OWTs
      4. 17.3 Scaling Laws for OWTs Supported on Monopiles
      5. 17.4 Scaling Laws for OWTs Supported on Multipod Foundations
      6. 17.5 Conclusions
      7. References
  10. Part IV: Generation of Electricity
    1. Chapter 18. Energy and Carbon Intensities of Stored Wind Energy
      1. Abstract
      2. 18.1 The Need for Storage
      3. 18.2 Key Characteristics for Storage
      4. 18.3 Net Energy Analysis of Storing and Curtailing Wind Resources
      5. 18.4 The Carbon Footprint of Storing Wind Energy
      6. 18.5 Conclusions
      7. References
    2. Chapter 19. Small-Scale Wind Turbines
      1. Abstract
      2. 19.1 Introduction
      3. 19.2 The Fundamental Concern for Micro-Wind: The Wind Resource
      4. 19.3 Building Mounted Turbines
      5. 19.4 The Future for Micro-Wind
      6. 19.5 Conclusions
      7. Acknowledgments
      8. References
    3. Chapter 20. Integration Into National Grids
      1. Abstract
      2. 20.1 Wind Integration: What it Means and Why We Need it
      3. 20.2 Current/Standard Measures for Wind Integration
      4. 20.3 The Future of Wind Integration
      5. 20.4 Conclusions
      6. References
  11. Part V: Environmental Impacts of Wind Energy
    1. Chapter 21. Life Cycle Assessment: Meta-analysis of Cumulative Energy Demand for Wind Energy Technologies
      1. Abstract
      2. 21.1 Introduction
      3. 21.2 Wind Energy Technologies
      4. 21.3 Life-Cycle Assessment
      5. 21.4 Meta-analysis
      6. 21.5 Results and Discussion
      7. 21.6 Conclusions
      8. Acknowledgments
      9. References
      10. Appendix A
      11. Appendix B
    2. Chapter 22. Environmental and Structural Safety Issues Related to Wind Energy
      1. Abstract
      2. 22.1 Introduction
      3. 22.2 Wind-Energy-Induced Environmental Issues and Countermeasures
      4. 22.3 Structural Safety Studies for Wind Turbine Towers
      5. 22.4 Summary
      6. Acknowledgments
      7. References
    3. Chapter 23. Wind Turbines and Landscape
      1. Abstract
      2. 23.1 A Passion for Landscape
      3. 23.2 What Is Landscape?
      4. 23.3 Changing Landscape
      5. 23.4 Technological Advancement
      6. 23.5 The Perception of Wind Farms
      7. 23.6 Landscapes With Power Generation Objects
      8. 23.7 What Are the Effects of wind Farms on our Landscape?
      9. 23.8 Mitigation
      10. 23.9 Conclusion
      11. References
    4. Chapter 24. Global Rare Earth Supply, Life Cycle Assessment, and Wind Energy
      1. Abstract
      2. 24.1 Background of Rare Earth Elements
      3. 24.2 Global REE Supply
      4. 24.3 REE Permanent Magnets
      5. 24.4 Life Cycle Assessment of the Use of REE Magnets in Wind Turbines
      6. 24.5 Global Wind Energy Projections
      7. 24.6 Implications for Future REE Supply
      8. 24.7 Conclusion
      9. References
  12. Part VI: Financial Modeling/Wind Economics
    1. Chapter 25. Economics of Wind Power Generation
      1. Abstract
      2. 25.1 Introduction
      3. 25.2 Economic Considerations
      4. 25.3 Wind Energy Cost Analysis
      5. 25.4 Levelized Cost of Electricity
      6. 25.5 Net Present Value
      7. 25.6 Straight Line Depreciation
      8. 25.7 Price and Cost Concepts
      9. 25.8 Wind Turbines Prices
      10. 25.9 Intermittence Factor
      11. 25.10 Land Rents, Royalties, and Project Profitability
      12. 25.11 Project Lifetime
      13. 25.12 Benchmark Wind Turbine Present Value Cost Analysis
      14. 25.13 Incentives and Subsidies
      15. 25.14 Wind Turbine Present Value Cost Analysis Accounting for the PTC
      16. 25.15 Accounting for the PTC as Well as Depreciation and Taxes
      17. 25.16 Transmission and Grid Issues
      18. 25.17 Discussion
      19. References
  13. Part VII: Investment, Growth Trends, and the Future of Wind Energy
    1. Chapter 26. Growth Trends and the Future of Wind Energy
      1. Abstract
      2. 26.1 Introduction: Global Status of Wind Power (on- and Offshore) in 2015
      3. 26.2 Offshore Wind Energy
      4. 26.3 The Future: Market Forecast (On- and Offshore) to 2020
      5. References
  14. Index