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Wind Energy Systems

Book Description

Unlike conventional power plants, wind plants emit no air pollutants or greenhouse gases—and wind energy is a free, renewable resource. However, the induction machines commonly used as wind generators have stability problems similar to the transient stability of synchronous machines. To minimize power, frequency, and voltage fluctuations caused by network faults or random wind speed variations, control mechanisms are necessary. Wind Energy Systems: Solutions for Power Quality and Stabilization clearly explains how to solve stability and power quality issues of wind generator systems.

Covering fundamental concepts of wind energy conversion systems, the book discusses several means to enhance the transient stability of wind generator systems. It also explains the methodologies for minimizing fluctuations of power, frequency, and voltage.

Topics covered include:

  • An overview of wind energy and wind energy conversion systems
  • Fundamentals of electric machines and power electronics
  • Types of wind generator systems
  • Challenges in integrating wind power into electricity grids
  • Solutions for power quality problems
  • Methods for improving transient stability during network faults
  • Methods for minimizing power fluctuations of variable-speed wind generator systems

This accessible book helps researchers and engineers understand the relative effectiveness of each method and select a suitable tool for wind generator stabilization. It also offers students an introduction to wind energy conversion systems, providing insights into important grid integration and stability issues.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. About the Author
  9. Chapter 1 Overview
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Why Renewable Energy
    3. 1.3 Wind Energy
    4. 1.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind-Generated Electricity
      1. 1.4.1 A Renewable Nonpolluting Resource
      2. 1.4.2 Cost Issues
      3. 1.4.3 Environmental Concerns
      4. 1.4.4 Supply and Transport Issues
    5. 1.5 Worldwide Status of Wind Energy
      1. 1.5.1 Europe
      2. 1.5.2 Germany
      3. 1.5.3 Spain
      4. 1.5.4 Italy
      5. 1.5.5 France
      6. 1.5.6 United Kingdom
      7. 1.5.7 European Union
      8. 1.5.8 North America
        1. 1.5.8.1 United States
        2. 1.5.8.2 Canada
      9. 1.5.9 Asia
        1. 1.5.9.1 China
        2. 1.5.9.2 India
        3. 1.5.9.3 Japan
      10. 1.5.10 Pacific
        1. 1.5.10.1 Australia
        2. 1.5.10.2 New Zealand
      11. 1.5.11 Latin America
        1. 1.5.11.1 Brazil
        2. 1.5.11.2 Mexican Power Generation System
      12. 1.5.12 Africa and Middle East
        1. 1.5.12.1 130 MW Installed in Africa and Middle East
    6. 1.6 Aim and Scope of the Book
    7. References
  10. Chapter 2 Wind Energy Conversion System
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Fundamental Concept
    3. 2.3 Wind Energy Technology
    4. 2.4 Basic Components of a Wind Turbine System
    5. 2.5 Types of Wind Turbines
      1. 2.5.1 Wind Turbines Based on Axes
        1. 2.5.1.1 Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
        2. 2.5.1.2 Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines
      2. 2.5.2 Wind Turbine Power Scales
      3. 2.5.3 Wind Turbine Installation Location
    6. 2.6 Modeling of Wind Turbines
      1. 2.6.1 Power Output from an Ideal Turbine
      2. 2.6.2 Power Output from Practical Turbines
        1. 2.6.2.1 Wind Turbine Design Speed
        2. 2.6.2.2 Pitch Mechanism
        3. 2.6.2.3 Effect of Wind Shear and Tower Shadow
        4. 2.6.2.4 Wind Shear
        5. 2.6.2.5 Tower Shadow
    7. 2.7 Chapter Summary
    8. References
  11. Chapter 3 Electric Machines and Power Systems
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 DC Machines
    3. 3.3 AC Machines
      1. 3.3.1 Synchronous Machines
        1. 3.3.1.1 Principle of Cylindrical-Rotor Synchronous Generators
        2. 3.3.1.2 Automatic Voltage Regulator System
        3. 3.3.1.3 Governor Control System
        4. 3.3.1.4 Power System Stabilizer
        5. 3.3.1.5 Operating Principle of Synchronous Motors
        6. 3.3.1.6 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator
        7. 3.3.1.7 Multimass Shaft System of Synchronous Generator
      2. 3.3.2 Asynchronous Machines
        1. 3.3.2.1 Synchronous Speed
        2. 3.3.2.2 Slip
        3. 3.3.2.3 Induction Generator or Asynchronous Generator
      3. 3.3.3 Synchronous Reluctance Machine
      4. 3.3.4 Transformer
        1. 3.3.4.1 Basic Principles
        2. 3.3.4.2 Induction Law
        3. 3.3.4.3 Ideal Power Equation
        4. 3.3.4.4 Detailed Operation
    4. 3.4 Electrical Power Systems
      1. 3.4.1 Conventional Power Generation
      2. 3.4.2 Electric Power Transmission
        1. 3.4.2.1 Line Parameters for Overhead Transmission Line
      3. 3.4.3 Electric Power Distribution
      4. 3.4.4 Power System Analysis
      5. 3.4.5 Power Flow Study
      6. 3.4.6 Per-Unit System and Base Quantities
        1. 3.4.6.1 Change of Bases
        2. 3.4.6.2 Per-Unit and Percent Admittance
      7. 3.4.7 Faults in Power Systems
        1. 3.4.7.1 Transient Fault
        2. 3.4.7.2 Persistent Fault
        3. 3.4.7.3 Symmetrical Fault
        4. 3.4.7.4 Asymmetrical Fault
        5. 3.4.7.5 Analysis
        6. 3.4.7.6 Detecting and Locating Faults
      8. 3.4.8 Power System Stability
        1. 3.4.8.1 Classification of Stability
      9. 3.4.9 Circuit Breakers
        1. 3.4.9.1 Operation
        2. 3.4.9.2 Arc Interruption
        3. 3.4.9.3 Short-Circuit Current
        4. 3.4.9.4 Types of Circuit Breakers
      10. 3.4.10 Power System Control
        1. 3.4.10.1 Active Power-Frequency Control
        2. 3.4.10.2 Reactive Power-Voltage Control
        3. 3.4.10.3 Methods of Voltage Control
        4. 3.4.10.4 Infinite Bus Concept
    5. 3.5 Power Quality
    6. 3.6 Chapter Summary
    7. References
  12. Chapter 4 Power Electronics
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Power Devices
    3. 4.3 Rectifier
    4. 4.4 Inverter
    5. 4.5 Chopper
    6. 4.6 Cycloconverter
    7. 4.7 Pulse Width Modulation Scheme
    8. 4.8 PWM VSC
    9. 4.9 Current Source Inverter
    10. 4.10 Chapter Summary
    11. References
  13. Chapter 5 Wind Generators
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Fixed-Speed Wind Energy Conversion Systems
    3. 5.3 Variable-Speed Wind Energy Conversion Systems
    4. 5.4 Wind Generators
      1. 5.4.1 Synchronous Generators
      2. 5.4.2 Induction Generators
    5. 5.5 Wind Generator Characteristics
    6. 5.6 Maximum Power Point Tracking System
    7. 5.7 WG Total Efficiency Calculation
      1. 5.7.1 Outline of the Calculation Method
      2. 5.7.2 Equations for Analysis
        1. 5.7.2.1 Wind Turbine Power
        2. 5.7.2.2 Generator Input
        3. 5.7.2.3 Copper Losses and Iron Loss
        4. 5.7.2.4 Bearing Loss, Windage Loss, and Stray Load Loss
        5. 5.7.2.5 Gearbox Loss
      3. 5.7.3 Calculation Method
      4. 5.7.4 Simulation Results
      5. 5.7.5 Simulation Result with Transient Phenomenon Considered
      6. 5.7.6 Efficiency Calculation Using a Probability Density Function
    8. 5.8 Chapter Summary
    9. References
  14. Chapter 6 Wind Generator Grid Integration Issues
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Transient Stability and Power Quality Problems
    3. 6.3 Variability of Wind Power
    4. 6.4 Power, Frequency, and Voltage Fluctuations Due to Random Wind Speed Variation
    5. 6.5 Grid Connection Requirements
      1. 6.5.1 Islanding and Auto Reclosure
      2. 6.5.2 Other Issues
        1. 6.5.2.1 Ferroresonance
        2. 6.5.2.2 Grounding
    6. 6.6 Design and Operation of Power Systems
    7. 6.7 Storage Options
    8. 6.8 Grid Infrastructure
    9. 6.9 Wind Power’s Contribution to System Adequacy
    10. 6.10 Chapter Summary
    11. References
  15. Chapter 7 Solutions for Power Quality Issues of Wind Generator Systems
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Various Energy Storage Systems
      1. 7.2.1 Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage
      2. 7.2.2 Battery Energy Storage Systems
      3. 7.2.3 Advanced Capacitors
      4. 7.2.4 Flywheel Energy Storage (FES)
      5. 7.2.5 Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage
      6. 7.2.6 Flow Batteries
      7. 7.2.7 Compressed Air Energy Storage
      8. 7.2.8 Thermoelectric Energy Storage
      9. 7.2.9 Hybrid Energy Storage Systems
    3. 7.3 Energy Storage Systems Compared
    4. 7.4 Using SMES to Minimize Fluctuations in Power, Frequency, and Voltage of Wind Generator Systems
      1. 7.4.1 Method of Calculating Power System Frequency
      2. 7.4.2 Simulation Results and Discussions
        1. 7.4.2.1 Effectiveness of SMES Systems on Minimizing Wind Generator Power, Frequency, and Voltage Fluctuations
        2. 7.4.2.2 Comparison among Energy Capacities of SMES Systems to Minimize Wind Generator Power, Frequency, and Voltage Fluctuations
      3. 7.4.3 SMES Power and Energy Ratings
    5. 7.5 Power Quality Improvement Using a Flywheel Energy Storage System
      1. 7.5.1 DC Bus Microgrid System
      2. 7.5.2 Volt/Hertz Control
      3. 7.5.3 Microgrid System Operation
      4. 7.5.4 Control of Flywheel Energy Storage System
      5. 7.5.5 Stability Consideration
    6. 7.6 Constant Power Control of DFIG Wind Turbines with Supercapacitor Energy Storage
      1. 7.6.1 Control of Individual DFIG Wind Turbines
      2. 7.6.2 Control of the RSC
      3. 7.6.3 Control of the GSC
      4. 7.6.4 Configuration and Control of the ESS
      5. 7.6.5 Wind Turbine Blade Pitch Control
      6. 7.6.6 Wind Farm Supervisory Control
    7. 7.7 Output Power Leveling of Wind Generator Systems by Pitch Angle Control
    8. 7.8 Chapter Summary
    9. References
  16. Chapter 8 Solutions for Transient Stability Issues of Fixed-Speed Wind Generator Systems
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Model System
    3. 8.3 Pitch Control Method
    4. 8.4 Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Method
      1. 8.4.1 PWM Voltage Source Converter
      2. 8.4.2 Two-Quadrant DC-to-DC Chopper
    5. 8.5 Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) Method
    6. 8.6 Braking Resistor Method
    7. 8.7 Superconducting Fault Current Limiter Method
    8. 8.8 Stabilization Methods Compared
      1. 8.8.1 Performance Analysis
      2. 8.8.2 Control Structure Analysis
      3. 8.8.3 Cost Analysis
      4. 8.8.4 Overall Comparison
    9. 8.9 Chapter Summary
    10. References
  17. Chapter 9 Fault Ride-Through Capability of Variable-Speed Wind Generator Systems
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Doubly Fed Induction Generator Systems
      1. 9.2.1 Rotor Side Converter
      2. 9.2.2 Grid Side Converter
    3. 9.3 Wound Field Synchronous Generator Systems
      1. 9.3.1 Speed Controller
      2. 9.3.2 Pitch Controller
      3. 9.3.3 Excitation Controller
      4. 9.3.4 Grid Side Inverter Controller
    4. 9.4 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Systems
      1. 9.4.1 Control of Back-to-Back Converters
      2. 9.4.2 Control of the ESS
      3. 9.4.3 Rating of the ESS
      4. 9.4.4 Design Example for the ESS
    5. 9.5 Switched Reluctance Generator System
      1. 9.5.1 SRG Operation
    6. 9.6 Chapter Summary
    7. References
  18. Index