Conventions Used in This Book

The following typographical conventions are used in this book:

Constant width

Indicates command-line elements, computer output, and code examples.

Constant width italic

Indicates placeholders (for which you substitute an actual name) in examples and in registry keys.

Constant width bold

Indicates user input.


Introduces new terms and URLs, commands, file extensions, filenames, directory or folder names, and UNC pathnames.


Indicates labels on buttons and menu items.


Indicates a tip, suggestion, or general note. For example, I'll tell you if you need to use a particular version or if an operation requires certain privileges.


Indicates a warning or caution. For example, I'll tell you if Active Directory does not behave as you'd expect or if a particular operation has a negative impact on performance.

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