Writing Training Materials That Work: How to Train Anyone to Do Anything

Book description

Writing Training Materials that Work is a solid and practical resource to move our field to a more professional level of practice in which instructional decisions are based on research and valid models of how people learn

--Ruth Clark, president, Clark Training and Consulting, past president, ISPI

"I can see how this book will be immediately useful to my students. In fact, I can see how it will be immediately useful to me. Thanks for putting it all together between two covers."

--Allison Rossett, professor, San Diego State University

The explosion of e-learning has attracted huge numbers of practitioners to the field of instructional design (ID), many with little or no actual ID training. And most current texts fail to cover the substantial recent developments in the field. Writing Training Materials that Work is different. In it, the authors identify, synthesize, and summarize the most current best practices in ID. They offer new ways of teaching declarative knowledge (facts, concepts, and principles) and well- to ill- structured procedural knowledge (problem solving). Their recommendations are based on those principles in the cognitive learning and instruction literature that are internally consistent, prescriptive, and have been empirically demonstrated to make a cost-effective difference. The authors' approach is easy to implement and consistently gets results because it focuses on teaching deep understanding and problem-solving, allowing learners to generalize and transfer learning to new situations without re-training. Whether you re an experienced instructional design practitioner who wants to expand your skills or a graduate student in an advanced instructional design course, Writing Training Materials T\that Work will prove to be a readable, usable, and indispensable guide!

Table of contents

  1. Copyright
  2. List of Figures
  3. Contents of the CD-ROM
  4. Acknowledgments
  5. Preface
  6. Introduction
    1. SCOPE AND TREATMENT
    2. INTENDED AUDIENCE
    3. ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
    4. HOW TO USE THE BOOK
    5. DESIGN TOOLS
  7. I. Introduction to the Cognitive Approach
    1. 1. The Cognitive Approach to Training Development
      1. 1.1. THE COGNITIVE APPROACH TO INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
      2. 1.2. THE COGNITIVE POINT OF VIEW ON HOW LEARNING OCCURS
        1. 1.2.1. Perception and Sensory Stores
        2. 1.2.2. Short-Term or Working Memory
        3. 1.2.3. Long-Term Memory
      3. 1.3. DECLARATIVE AND PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE AND THEIR SUBTYPES
        1. 1.3.1. Types of Declarative Knowledge
        2. 1.3.2. Types of Procedural Knowledge
      4. 1.4. SUMMARY
    2. 2. A Cognitive Training Model
      1. 2.1. A NEW COGNITIVE MODEL
      2. 2.2. LEARNER TASKS AND LESSON ELEMENTS
        1. 2.2.1. Learner Task 1: Select the Information to Attend To
        2. 2.2.2. Learner Task 2: Link the New Information with Existing Knowledge
        3. 2.2.3. Learner Task 3: Organize the Information
        4. 2.2.4. Learner Task 4: Assimilate the New Knowledge into Existing Knowledge
        5. 2.2.5. Learner Task 5: Strengthen the New Knowledge in Memory
      3. 2.3. HOW TO READ THE COGNITIVE TRAINING MODEL
      4. 2.4. DIFFERENTIATING OUR MODEL FROM GAGNE'S
      5. 2.5. HOW TO USE THE MODEL
      6. 2.6. SUMMARY
  8. II. How to Design Lessons Using the Cognitive Approach
    1. 3. How to Begin Any Lesson: The First Three Lesson Elements
      1. 3.1. ABOUT USING THE LESSON ELEMENTS ATTENTION, WIIFM, AND YCDI TO BEGIN A LESSON
        1. 3.1.1. Attention
        2. 3.1.2. How to Develop the Lesson Element
        3. 3.1.3. WIIFM
        4. 3.1.4. How to Develop the Lesson Element
        5. 3.1.5. You Can Do It (YCDI)
        6. 3.1.6. How to Develop the Lesson Element
      2. 3.2. USING THE LESSON ELEMENTS ATTENTION, WIIFM, AND YCDI TO BEGIN A LESSON
        1. 3.2.1. Example Scenario
          1. 3.2.1.1. Lesson Element: Attention
          2. 3.2.1.2. Lesson Element: WIIFM
          3. 3.2.1.3. Lesson Element: YCDI
      3. 3.3. SUMMARY
    2. 4. How to Organize and Present Information: Message Design Principles
      1. 4.1. ABOUT USING THE LESSON ELEMENTS TO HELP LEARNERS ORGANIZE THE INFORMATION
        1. 4.1.1. Example Scenario
        2. 4.1.2. Structure of Content
        3. 4.1.3. How to Develop This Lesson Element
          1. 4.1.3.1. Lesson Element: Structure of Content
        4. 4.1.4. Objectives
        5. 4.1.5. How to Develop This Lesson Element
          1. 4.1.5.1. Lesson Element: Objectives
        6. 4.1.6. Chunking
        7. 4.1.7. How to Teach This Lesson Element
          1. 4.1.7.1. Lesson Element: Chunking
        8. 4.1.8. Text Layout
        9. 4.1.9. How to Develop This Lesson Element
        10. 4.1.10. Illustrations
        11. 4.1.11. How to Develop This Lesson Element
      2. 4.2. SUMMARY
    3. 5. Teaching Facts
      1. 5.1. ABOUT FACTS
        1. 5.1.1. Facts Do Not Exist in Isolation
        2. 5.1.2. Networks Are Created Based on Context
        3. 5.1.3. Facts Are Best Retrieved in the Same Context in Which They Are Learned
        4. 5.1.4. We Learn Facts by Building On Existing Networks of Facts
      2. 5.2. GENERAL STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING FACTS
      3. 5.3. USING THE LESSON ELEMENTS TO TEACH FACTS
        1. 5.3.1. Example Scenario
        2. 5.3.2. Learner Task 2: Link the New Information with Existing Knowledge
          1. 5.3.2.1. Lesson Element: Recall
          2. 5.3.2.2. Lesson Element: Relate
        3. 5.3.3. Learner Task 3: Organize the Information
          1. 5.3.3.1. Lesson Element: Structure of Content
          2. 5.3.3.2. Lesson Element: Objectives
        4. 5.3.4. Learner Task 4: Assimilate the New Knowledge into Existing Knowledge
          1. 5.3.4.1. Lesson Element: Present New Knowledge
        5. 5.3.5. Learner Task 5: Strengthen the Knowledge in Memory
          1. 5.3.5.1. Lesson Element: Practice
          2. 5.3.5.2. Lesson Element: Feedback
          3. 5.3.5.3. Lesson Element: Summary
          4. 5.3.5.4. Lesson Element: Test
          5. 5.3.5.5. Lesson Element: On-the-Job Application
      4. 5.4. SUMMARY
    4. 6. Teaching Concepts
      1. 6.1. ABOUT CONCEPTS
        1. 6.1.1. 1. Group of Things
        2. 6.1.2. 2. Critical, Variable, and Irrelevant Attributes
        3. 6.1.3. 3. Examples and Concepts
        4. 6.1.4. 4. Coordinate and Subordinate/Superordinate Concepts
        5. 6.1.5. 5. Knowledge Structures
      2. 6.2. GENERAL STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING CONCEPTS
      3. 6.3. USING THE LESSON ELEMENTS TO TEACH CONCEPTS
        1. 6.3.1. Example Scenario
        2. 6.3.2. Learner Task 2: Link the New Information with Existing Knowledge
          1. 6.3.2.1. Lesson Element: Recall
          2. 6.3.2.2. Lesson Element: Relate
        3. 6.3.3. Learner Task 3: Organize the Information
          1. 6.3.3.1. Lesson Element: Structure of Content
          2. 6.3.3.2. Lesson Element: Objectives
        4. 6.3.4. Learner Task 4: Assimilate the New Knowledge into Existing Knowledge
          1. 6.3.4.1. Lesson Elements: Present New Knowledge and Present Examples
        5. 6.3.5. Learner Task 5: Strengthen the New Knowledge in Memory
          1. 6.3.5.1. Lesson Element: Practice
          2. 6.3.5.2. Lesson Element: Feedback
          3. 6.3.5.3. Lesson Element: Summary
          4. 6.3.5.4. Lesson Element: Test
          5. 6.3.5.5. Lesson Element: On-the-Job Application
      4. 6.4. SUMMARY
    5. 7. Teaching Principles and Mental Models
      1. 7.1. ABOUT PRINCIPLES AND MENTAL MODELS
        1. 7.1.1. Principles
        2. 7.1.2. Mental Models
      2. 7.2. GENERAL STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING PRINCIPLES AND MENTAL MODELS
      3. 7.3. USING THE LESSON ELEMENTS TO TEACH PRINCIPLES AND MENTAL MODELS
        1. 7.3.1. Example Scenario
        2. 7.3.2. Learner Task 2: Link the New Information with Existing Knowledge
          1. 7.3.2.1. Lesson Element: Recall
          2. 7.3.2.2. Lesson Element: Relate
        3. 7.3.3. Learner Task 3: Organize the Information
          1. 7.3.3.1. Lesson Element: Structure of Content
          2. 7.3.3.2. Lesson Element: Objectives
        4. 7.3.4. Learner Task 4: Assimilate the New Knowledge into Existing Knowledge
          1. 7.3.4.1. Lesson Elements: Present New Knowledge and Examples
        5. 7.3.5. Learner Task 5: Strengthen the New Knowledge in Memory
          1. 7.3.5.1. Lesson Element: Practice
          2. 7.3.5.2. Lesson Element: Feedback
          3. 7.3.5.3. Lesson Element: Summary
          4. 7.3.5.4. Lesson Element: Test
          5. 7.3.5.5. Lesson Element: On-the-Job Application
      4. 7.4. SUMMARY
    6. 8. Teaching Well-Structured Problem-Solving
      1. 8.1. ABOUT WELL-STRUCTURED PROBLEM-SOLVING
      2. 8.2. GENERAL STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING WELL-STRUCTURED PROBLEM-SOLVING
        1. 8.2.1. What to Teach
        2. 8.2.2. Present the Structure
        3. 8.2.3. Build Procedural Knowledge
        4. 8.2.4. Practice
        5. 8.2.5. Discovery-Based Strategies
      3. 8.3. USING THE LESSON ELEMENTS TO TEACH WELL-STRUCTURED PROBLEM-SOLVING
        1. 8.3.1. Example Scenario
        2. 8.3.2. Learner Task 2: Link the New Information with Existing Knowledge
          1. 8.3.2.1. Lesson Element: Recall
          2. 8.3.2.2. Lesson Element: Relate
        3. 8.3.3. Learner Task 3: Organize the Information
          1. 8.3.3.1. Lesson Element: Structure of Content
          2. 8.3.3.2. Lesson Element: Objectives
        4. 8.3.4. Learner Task 4: Assimilate the New Knowledge into Existing Knowledge
          1. 8.3.4.1. Lesson Elements: Present New Knowledge and Present Examples
        5. 8.3.5. Learner Task 5: Strengthen the New Knowledge in Memory
          1. 8.3.5.1. Lesson Element: Practice
          2. 8.3.5.2. Lesson Element: Feedback
          3. 8.3.5.3. Lesson Element: Summary
          4. 8.3.5.4. Lesson Element: Test
          5. 8.3.5.5. Lesson Element: On-the-Job Application
      4. 8.4. SUMMARY
    7. 9. Teaching Ill-Structured Problem-Solving
      1. 9.1. ABOUT ILL-STRUCTURED PROBLEM-SOLVING
        1. 9.1.1. Definition of Problem Space
        2. 9.1.2. Check the Results—Reflect
      2. 9.2. PROBLEMS LEARNING ILL-STRUCTURED PROBLEM-SOLVING
      3. 9.3. GENERAL STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING ILL-STRUCTURED PROBLEM-SOLVING
        1. 9.3.1. What to Teach
        2. 9.3.2. Present the Problem
        3. 9.3.3. Present the Structure
        4. 9.3.4. Generate the Heuristic
        5. 9.3.5. Reflection
      4. 9.4. USING THE LESSON ELEMENTS TO TEACH ILL-STRUCTURED PROBLEM-SOLVING
        1. 9.4.1. Example Scenario
        2. 9.4.2. Learner Task 2: Link the New Information with Existing Knowledge
          1. 9.4.2.1. Lesson Element: Recall
          2. 9.4.2.2. Lesson Element: Relate
        3. 9.4.3. Learner Task 3: Organize the Information
          1. 9.4.3.1. Lesson Element: Structure of Content
          2. 9.4.3.2. Lesson Element: Objectives
        4. 9.4.4. Learner Task 4: Assimilate the New Knowledge into Existing Knowledge
          1. 9.4.4.1. Lesson Elements: Present New Knowledge and Present Examples
        5. 9.4.5. Learner Task 5: Strengthen the New Knowledge in Memory
          1. 9.4.5.1. Lesson Element: Practice
          2. 9.4.5.2. Lesson Element: Feedback
          3. 9.4.5.3. Lesson Element: Summary
          4. 9.4.5.4. Lesson Element: Test
          5. 9.4.5.5. Lesson Element: On-the-Job Application
        6. 9.4.6. Components of Practice Examples
      5. 9.5. SUMMARY
    8. 10. Teaching Troubleshooting
      1. 10.1. ABOUT TROUBLESHOOTING
      2. 10.2. GENERAL STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING TROUBLESHOOTING
      3. 10.3. USING THE LESSON ELEMENTS TO TEACH TROUBLESHOOTING
        1. 10.3.1. Example Scenario
        2. 10.3.2. Learner Task 2: Link the Information to Attend To
          1. 10.3.2.1. Lesson Element: Recall
          2. 10.3.2.2. Lesson Element: Relate
        3. 10.3.3. Learner Task 3: Organize the Information
          1. 10.3.3.1. Lesson Element: Structure of Content
          2. 10.3.3.2. Lesson Element: Objectives
        4. 10.3.4. Learner Task 4: Assimilate the New Knowledge into Existing Knowledge
          1. 10.3.4.1. Lesson Element: Present New Knowledge
        5. 10.3.5. Learner Task 5: Strengthen the New Knowledge in Memory
          1. 10.3.5.1. Lesson Element: Practice
          2. 10.3.5.2. Lesson Element: Feedback
          3. 10.3.5.3. Lesson Element: Summary
          4. 10.3.5.4. Lesson Element: Test
          5. 10.3.5.5. Lesson Element: On-the-Job Application
      4. 10.4. SUMMARY
    9. 11. Teaching Complete Lessons
      1. 11.1. COMBINING DECLARATIVE AND PROCEDURAL TEACHING: TWO APPROACHES
        1. 11.1.1. One Combined Lesson
        2. 11.1.2. Separate Declarative and Procedural Knowledge Lessons
      2. 11.2. TWO KEY ID ISSUES
        1. 11.2.1. Manage Cognitive Load
        2. 11.2.2. Avoid Redundancy in Compound Lessons
      3. 11.3. TEMPLATE
      4. 11.4. AN EXAMPLE OF THE RECOMMENDED APPROACH TO COMBINED LESSONS
        1. 11.4.1. The YourMart Scenario
      5. 11.5. SUMMARY
  9. III. Using the Cognitive Approach: The Research Issues
    1. 12. Issues Underlying the Cognitive Approach to Instructional Design
      1. 12.1. PURPOSE AND APPROACH
      2. 12.2. HOW THE BEHAVIORAL AND COGNITIVE APPROACHES DIFFER
      3. 12.3. SUMMARY
    2. 13. Issues Underlying Teaching Declarative Knowledge
      1. 13.1. HOW DECLARATIVE AND PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE DIFFER
      2. 13.2. FACTS
      3. 13.3. CONCEPTS
        1. 13.3.1. Problems in Learning Concepts
        2. 13.3.2. Instructional Design Issues
      4. 13.4. PRINCIPLES AND MENTAL MODELS
        1. 13.4.1. Differences Among Concepts, Principles, Mental Models, and Procedures
        2. 13.4.2. When to Teach Principles and Mental Models
        3. 13.4.3. One Principle at a Time vs. Mental Model
        4. 13.4.4. Examples vs. Principles/Mental Models
      5. 13.5. COMMON ERRORS IN TEACHING DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE
      6. 13.6. SUMMARY
    3. 14. Issues Underlying Teaching Procedural Knowledge
      1. 14.1. ABOUT PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE
        1. 14.1.1. The Continuum of Problems
        2. 14.1.2. Widely Agreed-On Premises About Problem Solving
        3. 14.1.3. Declarative Knowledge, Mental Models, and Problem Solving
      2. 14.2. TERMINOLOGY
        1. 14.2.1. Algorithms (Well-Structured Problems)
        2. 14.2.2. Heuristics and Ill-Structured Problems
        3. 14.2.3. Scaffolding
        4. 14.2.4. Problem Space
        5. 14.2.5. Cognitive Load
        6. 14.2.6. Cognitive Coaching
      3. 14.3. HOW LEARNERS SOLVE PROBLEMS
        1. 14.3.1. Initial Representation of the Problem: Creation of the Problem Space
        2. 14.3.2. Recall Declarative Knowledge (Mental Model)
        3. 14.3.3. Recall Procedural Knowledge
        4. 14.3.4. Expert's vs. Novice's Problem Spaces
        5. 14.3.5. Blocks Created by Problem Spaces
      4. 14.4. PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES
      5. 14.5. TEACHING PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE TO SOLVE PROBLEMS
      6. 14.6. ISSUES IN TEACHING ILL-STRUCTURED PROBLEM SOLVING
        1. 14.6.1. 1. Types of Problems
        2. 14.6.2. 2. Problem Formats
        3. 14.6.3. 3. Sequence of Teaching Problems
        4. 14.6.4. 4. Inductive vs. Deductive Teaching
      7. 14.7. ISSUES IN TEACHING TROUBLESHOOTING
      8. 14.8. SUMMARY
  10. Further Reading
  11. About the Authors
  12. How to Use the CD-ROM
    1. SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
    2. GETTING STARTED
    3. MOVING AROUND
    4. TO DOWNLOAD DOCUMENTS
    5. IN CASE OF TROUBLE

Product information

  • Title: Writing Training Materials That Work: How to Train Anyone to Do Anything
  • Author(s): Wellesley R. Foshay, Kenneth Silber, Michael Stelnicki
  • Release date: January 2003
  • Publisher(s): Pfeiffer
  • ISBN: 9780787964115