2.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Considering the fundamental principles of X-rays discussed in the previous chapter, the basic components of any XRF spectrometer are:
• an excitation source that produces ionization owing to photoelectric absorption of the atoms present in a sample;
• a specimen presentation system;
• a detection system that collects the characteristic radiation emerging from the sample;
• a data collection and signal processing system.
In addition, some XRF systems are also equipped with source or detector modifier devices to improve the analytical performance for specific applications. In Figure 2.1, the basic components of XRF spectrometers are shown.