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X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry and Its Applications to Archaeology

Book Description

This book serves as a practical guide for applications of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, a nondestructive elemental analysis technique, to the study and understanding of archaeology. Descriptions of XRF theory and instrumentation and an introduction to field applications and practical aspects of archaeology provide new users to XRF and/or new to archaeology with a solid foundation on which to base further study. Considering recent trends within field archaeology, information specific to portable instrumentation also is provided. Discussions of qualitative and quantitative approaches and applications of statistical methods relate back to types of archaeological questions answerable through XRF analysis. Numerous examples, figures, and spectra from the authors’ field work are provided including chapters specific to pigments, ceramics, glass, construction materials, and metallurgical materials.

Table of Contents

  1. List of Figures
  2. List of Tables
  3. Preface
  4. Acknowledgments
  5. 1 Theory and Basic Principles
  6. 1.1 X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
  7. 1.2 Field Applications in Archaeology
  8. References
  9. 2 Instrumentation
  10. 2.1 Instrument Fundamentals
  11. 2.2 Wavelength Dispersive Instruments
  12. 2.3 Energy Dispersive Instruments
  13. 2.4 Portable Instruments
  14. 2.5 Micro X-Ray Fluorescence Instruments
  15. 2.6 Other Instrument Considerations
  16. 2.7 Safety
  17. 2.8 Practical Aspects for Archaeology and Conservation
  18. References
  19. 3 Data Collection
  20. 3.1 Introduction
  21. 3.2 Samples and Sample Preparation
  22. 3.3 Instrument Considerations
  23. 3.4 Instrument Parameters
  24. 3.5 Specifics Related to Archaeology
  25. References
  26. 4 Considerations for Data Collection in the Field
  27. 4.1 Introduction
  28. 4.2 Protocols
  29. 4.3 Computer or PDA
  30. 4.4 Sample Collection for Control of Data
  31. 4.5 Case Study: Coriglia, Castel Viscardo
  32. References
  33. 5 Data
  34. 5.1 Qualitative Analysis
  35. 5.2 Quantitative Analysis
  36. 5.3 Other Approaches to Data Evaluation
  37. 5.4 Examples from Archaeological Work67
  38. References
  39. 6 Pigments
  40. 6.1 Background
  41. 6.2 Identification of Pigments
  42. 6.3 Pigment Sourcing
  43. 6.4 Discussions Relating to Archaeological Work
  44. References
  45. 7 Ceramics
  46. 7.1 Ceramic Production
  47. 7.2 Paste/Fabric
  48. 7.3 Painted Decorations
  49. 7.4 Slip and Glaze
  50. References
  51. 8 Glass
  52. 8.1 Background
  53. 8.2 Roman Glass
  54. References
  55. 9 Construction Materials
  56. 9.1 Cements, Mortars, and Concretes
  57. 9.2 Stone
  58. References
  59. 10 Metallurgical Materials
  60. 10.1 Background
  61. 10.2 Slag
  62. 10.3 Coins
  63. 10.4 Water System with Lead Pipes
  64. References
  65. Summary
  66. About the Authors
  67. Index