Conventions Used in This Book
[table of contents] [index]
is used for the names of all UNIX utilities, switches, directories,
and filenames and to emphasize new terms and concepts when they
are first introduced.
is used occasionally within text to make words easy to find -- just like
movie stars' names in the People section of your local newspaper.
For example, it is used with line numbers in the descriptions
of files and programs.
(constant width) is used for sample code fragments and examples.
A reference in
text to a word or item used in an example or code fragment is
also shown in teletype font.
- Teletype Bold
is used in examples to show commands or text that would be typed
in literally by the user.
- Teletype Italic
- Teletype Bold Italic
are used in code fragments and examples to show variables for which
a context-specific substitution should be made.
(The variable filename, for example, would be replaced by some
Constant italic is also used to highlight line numbers
in examples (like 12>).
These line numbers are not part of the file; they are for reference only.
is a reference to a manual page in Section n of the
UNIX programmer's manual.
refers to a page called mh-format in Section 5.
is the C shell prompt.
is the Bourne shell prompt.
stands for text (usually computer output) that's been
omitted for clarity or to save space.
is an "electronic smiley face," a convention in electronic communication.
It means "don't take that seriously."
stands for a control character.
for example, hold down the
Control key and press the
Control characters are not case sensitive;
"d" refers to both the uppercase and lowercase letter.
Control characters are also shown with a caret (^) and the letter,
as in ^D.
stands for a Meta character.
Meta characters are written as follows:
if the character is a lowercase
letter, the meta character will appear as
If the character is an uppercase letter, the meta character will
META-C, for example, hold down the
key and press the "c"
To make the
character, hold down both the
key and the
(shift) key and press the "c" key.
The Meta key isn't always labeled "Meta".
If your keyboard doesn't have Meta keys, try using a utility like
to redefine some other key -- or use another
command to do what you need.
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Last change $Date: 1996/06/06 15:14:33 $
This file is from the third edition of the book MH & xmh: Email
for Users & Programmers, ISBN 1-56592-093-7, by Jerry Peek.
Copyright © 1991, 1992, 1995 by O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
This file is freely-available; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation. For more information, see
the file copying.htm.
Suggestions are welcome:
Jerry Peek <firstname.lastname@example.org>