This video was originally recorded in June 2016 at the O'Reilly Velocity Conference in Santa Clara, Calif.

Article image: The world map from Leinhart Holle's 1482 edition of Nicolaus Germanus's emendations to Jacobus Angelus's 1406 Latin translation of Maximus Planudes's late-13th century rediscovered Greek manuscripts of Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography. (source: Wikimedia Commons).