217
15
Problem Solving (Finally!)
Mitigation Options:
OrBeCarefulWhat You Ask
for, You MayGet It! BeClear
What You Ask for!
SECURITY PROGRAM
It is possible to implement a robust security program following a full security risk assessment. This
risk assessment helps identify those hazards that would lead to situations with the greatest prob-
ability for occurring, and the greatest severity to the operation. These hazards are the rst priority
for future security program training, risk mitigation, and response preparation.
Prevention and mitigation strategies can include the following:
1. CPTED principles
2. Physical security devices
3. Electronic security devices
4. Security personnel
5. Administrative procedures including supervision, training, preemployment screening,
documentation
CONTENTS
Security Program ........................................................................................................................... 217
Identifying Preliminary Mitigation Options (Step 5—Task 5.1) ................................................... 219
Regulatory Measures .................................................................................................................220
Repair and Strengthening of Existing Buildings .......................................................................220
Protective and Control Measures ..............................................................................................220
Reviewing Mitigation Options (Step 5—Task 5.2) ........................................................................ 221
Estimating Cost (Step 5—Task 5.3) ...............................................................................................223
Setting Priorities ........................................................................................................................224
Applicability of Benet/Cost to Terrorist Threats .....................................................................224
Selecting, Prioritizing, and IntegratingMitigation Measures (Step 5—Task 5.4) .........................225
Mitigation Options ......................................................................................................................... 229
Summary ........................................................................................................................................ 250
References ......................................................................................................................................252
218 21st Century Security and CPTED
To formulate a security program, it is rst necessary to complete each stage of the risk assessment
process. In order to assess the degree of security needed for a particular location, it is necessary to
consider the following factors:
Type of business
Attractiveness to the criminal in terms of goods, cash, and possible condential
information
Potential escape routes for the removal of stolen goods (these may not be the same as the
entry route)
Ease of access from either the streets, open areas, adjacent roofs, floors above and
below the premises concerned if not under single occupancy, and from adjoining
premises
Degree of inherent security of the premises in relation to its construction
Vulnerability relative to local trends in crime
Surveillance provided either by normal public activity, routine police patrol of the area or
by security patrolling of the premises or its surroundings
The security assessment process follows a logical ow (FEMA 452, 2010). We have already
addressed the rst four steps, and now the fth and nal stage is ready for implementation, mitiga-
tion options, problem solving:
Step 1: Threat assessment
Identify each threat and hazard
Determine the design parameters
Determine the threat and hazard rating
Step 2: Assets value
Understand the asset value
Identify the building core functions and infrastructure
Determine the asset value rating
Step 3: Vulnerability analysis
Identify the layers of defense
Understand redundancy factors
Conduct the site inspection
Prepare a vulnerability portfolio
Determine the vulnerability rating
Step 4: Risk assessment
What is the likelihood?
What is the impact of occurrence regarding loss of life, property, and business continuity?
Determine the relative risk for each threat against each asset
Prepare the risk assessment matrix
Determine the risk ratings
Prioritize observations in the building vulnerability assessment
Step 5: Mitigation options
Identifying preliminary mitigation options
Reviewing mitigation options
Estimating costs
Selecting, prioritizing, and integrating mitigation options

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