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Four dimensional printing in healthcare

Rohit G. Jadhav and Apurba K. Das,    Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India

Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is a powerful manufacturing tool with applications in various fields including healthcare sector. The four dimension (4D) printing technology, is latest innovation in 3D printing sector. 4D printing technology overcomes the static behavior of a 3D printed object and forces a response from a 3D printed object upon internal or external stimuli such as pH, magnetic field and light present in the environment. 4D printed objects are capable of changing their shapes or functions with time upon the response to external stimuli. The responsive nature of ...

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