Figure 4.45 Polar encoder of different sizes [32].

Polar codes were introduced as non-systematic codes. Any linear code can be transformed from non-systematic to a systematic code. The systematic polar encoding can be performed using the standard non-systematic polar encoding apparatus in a three-phase operation as follows (see Fig. 4.46):

  1. 1. The vector u=(uA,uAc)image is encoded in the standard non-systematic fashion producing the vector u¯image.
  2. 2. 

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