A First Course in Quality Engineering, 3rd Edition

Book description

This book is the leader among the new generation of text books on quality that follow the systems approach to creating quality in products and services; the earlier generations focused solely on parts of the system such as statistical methods, process control, and management philosophy. It follows the premise that the body of knowledge and tools documented by quality professionals and researchers, when employed in designing, creating and delivering the product will lead to product quality, customer satisfaction and reduced waste. The tools employed at the different stages of the product creation cycle are covered in this book using real world examples along with their theoretical bases, strengths and weaknesses.

This textbook can be used for training - from shop floor personnel to college majors in business and engineering to practicing professionals. Graduate students training as researchers in the quality field will also find useful material. The book has been used as the text for a Professional Series Massive Open Online Course offered by the Technical University of Munich on edX.org, through which tens of thousands of participants from all over the world have received training in quality methods. According to Professor Dr. Holly Ott, who chose the book for the course, the text is one of the main factors contributing to success of this MOOC.

The Third Edition has been fully revised to be friendly for self-study, reflects changes in the standards referenced such as ISO 9000, and includes new examples of application of statistical tools in health care industry.

Features:

  • Reviews the history of quality movement in the U.S. and abroad
  • Discusses Quality Cost analysis and quality’s impact on a company’s bottom line
  • Explains finding customer needs and designing the product using House of Quality
  • Covers selection of product parameters using DOE and reliability principles
  • Includes control charts to control processes to make the product right-the-first-time
  • Describes use of capability indices Cp and Cpk to meet customer needs
  • Presents problem solving methodology and tools for continuous improvement
  • Offers ISO 9000, Baldrige and Six Sigma as templates for creating a quality system

Table of contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title Page
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Contents
  6. Preface to the Third Edition
  7. Preface to the Second Edition
  8. Preface to the First Edition
  9. Authors
  10. Chapter 1 Introduction to Quality
    1. 1.1 A Historical Overview
      1. 1.1.1 A Note about “Quality Engineering”
    2. 1.2 Defining Quality
      1. 1.2.1 Product Quality vs. Service Quality
    3. 1.3 The Total Quality System
    4. 1.4 Total Quality Management
    5. 1.5 Economics of Quality
    6. 1.6 Quality, Productivity, and Competitive Position
    7. 1.7 Quality Costs
      1. 1.7.1 Categories of Quality Costs
        1. 1.7.1.1 Prevention Cost
        2. 1.7.1.2 Appraisal Cost
        3. 1.7.1.3 Internal Failure Cost
        4. 1.7.1.4 External Failure Cost
      2. 1.7.2 Steps in Conducting a Quality Cost Study
      3. 1.7.3 Projects Arising from a Quality Cost Study
      4. 1.7.4 Quality Cost Scoreboard
      5. 1.7.5 Quality Costs Not Included in the TQC
      6. 1.7.6 Relationship among Quality Cost Categories
      7. 1.7.7 Summary on Quality Costs
      8. 1.7.8 A Case Study in Quality Costs
    8. 1.8 Success Stories
    9. 1.9 Exercise
      1. 1.9.1 Practice Problems
      2. 1.9.2 Mini-Projects
        1. Mini-Project 1.1
        2. Mini-Project 1.2
        3. Mini-Project 1.3
        4. Mini-Project 1.4
  11. Chapter 2 Statistics for Quality
    1. 2.1 Variability in Populations
    2. 2.2 Some Definitions
      1. 2.2.1 The Population and a Sample
      2. 2.2.2 Two Types of Data
    3. 2.3 Quality vs. Variability
    4. 2.4 Empirical Methods for Describing Populations
      1. 2.4.1 The Frequency Distribution
        1. 2.4.1.1 The Histogram
        2. 2.4.1.2 The Cumulative Frequency Distribution
      2. 2.4.2 Numerical Methods for Describing Populations
        1. 2.4.2.1 Calculating the Average and Standard Deviation
      3. 2.4.3 Other Graphical Methods
        1. 2.4.3.1 Stem-and-Leaf Diagram
        2. 2.4.3.2 Box-and-Whisker Plot
      4. 2.4.4 Other Numerical Measures
        1. 2.4.4.1 Measures of Location
        2. 2.4.4.2 Measures of Dispersion
          1. Summary on Empirical Methods
      5. 2.4.5 Exercises in Empirical Methods
    5. 2.5 Mathematical Models for Describing Populations
      1. 2.5.1 Probability
        1. 2.5.1.1 Definition of Probability
        2. 2.5.1.2 Computing the Probability of an Event
          1. 2.5.1.2.1 Method of Analysis
          2. 2.5.1.2.2 A Special Case
          3. 2.5.1.2.3 Method of Relative Frequency
        3. 2.5.1.3 Theorems on Probability
          1. 2.5.1.3.1 Addition Theorem of Probability
            1. Corollary
          2. 2.5.1.3.2 The Extension of the Addition Theorem
          3. 2.5.1.3.3 Complement Theorem of Probability
          4. 2.5.1.3.4 Theorems on the Joint Occurrence of Events
          5. 2.5.1.3.5 Conditional Probability
          6. 2.5.1.3.6 Independent Events
          7. 2.5.1.3.7 The Multiplication Theorems of Probability
          8. 2.5.1.3.8 The Theorem of Total Probability
        4. 2.5.1.4 Counting the Sample Points in a Sample Space
          1. 2.5.1.4.1 The Multiplication Rule
          2. 2.5.1.4.2 Permutations
          3. 2.5.1.4.3 Theorem on Number of Permutations
          4. 2.5.1.4.4 Combinations
          5. 2.5.1.4.5 Theorem on Number of Combinations
      2. Summary on Probability
      3. 2.5.2 Exercises in Probability
      4. 2.5.3 Probability Distributions
        1. 2.5.3.1 Random Variable
        2. 2.5.3.2 Probability Mass Function
        3. 2.5.3.3 Probability Density Function
        4. 2.5.3.4 The Cumulative Distribution Function
        5. 2.5.3.5 The Mean and Variance of a Distribution
      5. 2.5.4 Some Important Probability Distributions
        1. 2.5.4.1 The Binomial Distribution
          1. 2.5.4.1.1 The Mean and Variance of a Binomial Variable
        2. 2.5.4.2 The Poisson Distribution
          1. 2.5.4.2.1 The Mean and Variance of the Poisson Distribution
        3. 2.5.4.3 The Normal Distribution
          1. 2.5.4.3.1 The Standard Normal Distribution
          2. 2.5.4.3.2 Application of the Normal Distribution
        4. 2.5.4.4 Distribution of the Sample Average X¯
        5. 2.5.4.5 The Central Limit Theorem
      6. Summary on Probability Distributions
      7. 2.5.5 Exercises in Probability Distributions
    6. 2.6 Inference of Population Quality from a Sample
      1. 2.6.1 Definitions
      2. 2.6.2 Confidence Intervals
        1. 2.6.2.1 CI for the µ of a Normal Population When s Is Known
        2. 2.6.2.2 Interpretation of CI
        3. 2.6.2.3 CI for µ When s Is Not Known
        4. 2.6.2.4 CI for s2 of a Normal Population
      3. 2.6.3 Hypothesis Testing
        1. Two Types of Errors
        2. 2.6.3.1 Test Concerning the Mean µ of a Normal Population When s Is Known
        3. 2.6.3.2 Why Place the Claim Made about a Parameter in H1?
        4. 2.6.3.3 The Three Possible Alternate Hypotheses
        5. 2.6.3.4 Test Concerning the Mean µ of a Normal Population When s Is Not Known
        6. 2.6.3.5 Test for Difference of Two Means When ss Are Known
      4. 2.6.4 Tests for Normality
        1. 2.6.4.1 Use of the Normal Probability Plot
        2. 2.6.4.2 Normal Probability Plot on the Computer
        3. 2.6.4.3 A Goodness-of-Fit Test
      5. 2.6.5 The P-Value
        1. Summary on Inference Methods
      6. 2.6.6 Exercises in Inference Methods
        1. 2.6.6.1 Confidence Intervals
        2. 2.6.6.2 Hypothesis Testing
        3. 2.6.6.3 Goodness-of-Fit Test
    7. 2.7 Mini-Projects
      1. Mini-Project 2.1
      2. Mini-Project 2.2
      3. Mini-Project 2.3
      4. Mini-Project 2.4
  12. Chapter 3 Quality in Design
    1. 3.1 Planning for Quality
      1. 3.1.1 The Product Creation Cycle
    2. 3.2 Product Planning
      1. 3.2.1 Finding Customer Needs
        1. 3.2.1.1 Customer Survey
      2. 3.2.2 Quality Function Deployment
        1. 3.2.2.1 Customer Requirements and Design Features
        2. 3.2.2.2 Prioritizing Design Features
        3. 3.2.2.3 Choosing a Competitor as Benchmark
        4. 3.2.2.4 Targets
      3. 3.2.3 Reliability Fundamentals
        1. 3.2.3.1 Definition of Reliability
        2. 3.2.3.2 Hazard Function
        3. 3.2.3.3 The Bathtub Curve
        4. 3.2.3.4 Distribution of Product Life
        5. 3.2.3.5 The Exponential Distribution
        6. 3.2.3.6 Mean Time to Failure
        7. 3.2.3.7 Reliability Engineering
    3. 3.3 Product Design
      1. 3.3.1 Parameter Design
      2. 3.3.2 Design of Experiments
        1. 3.3.2.1 22 Factorial Design
        2. 3.3.2.2 Randomization
        3. 3.3.2.3 Experimental Results from a 22 Design
        4. 3.3.2.4 Calculating the Factor Effects
        5. 3.3.2.5 Main Effects
        6. 3.3.2.6 Interaction Effects
        7. 3.3.2.7 A Shortcut for Calculating Effects
        8. 3.3.2.8 Determining the Significance of Effects
        9. 3.3.2.9 The 23 Design
        10. 3.3.2.10 Interpretation of the Results
        11. 3.3.2.11 Model Building
        12. 3.3.2.12 Taguchi Designs
      3. 3.3.3 Tolerance Design
        1. 3.3.3.1 Traditional Approaches
        2. 3.3.3.2 Tolerancing According to Dr. Taguchi
        3. 3.3.3.3 Assembly Tolerances
        4. 3.3.3.4 The RSS Formula
        5. 3.3.3.5 Natural Tolerance Limits
      4. 3.3.4 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
      5. 3.3.5 Concurrent Engineering
        1. 3.3.5.1 Design for Manufacturability/Assembly
        2. 3.3.5.2 Design Reviews
    4. 3.4 Process Design
      1. 3.4.1 The Process Flow Chart
      2. 3.4.2 Process Parameter Selection: Experiments
      3. 3.4.3 Floor Plan Layout
      4. 3.4.4 Process FMEA
      5. 3.4.5 Process Control Plan
      6. 3.4.6 Other Process Plans
        1. 3.4.6.1 Process Instructions
        2. 3.4.6.2 Packaging Standards
        3. 3.4.6.3 Preliminary Process Capabilities
        4. 3.4.6.4 Product and Process Validation
        5. 3.4.6.5 Process Capability Results
        6. 3.4.6.6 Measurement System Analysis
        7. 3.4.6.7 Product/Process Approval
        8. 3.4.6.8 Feedback, Assessment, and Corrective Action
    5. 3.5 Exercise
      1. 3.5.1 Practice Problems
      2. 3.5.2 Mini-Projects
        1. Mini-Project 3.1
        2. Mini-Project 3.2
        3. Mini-Project 3.3
  13. Chapter 4 Quality in Production—Process Control I
    1. 4.1 Process Control
    2. 4.2 The Control Charts
      1. 4.2.1 Typical Control Chart
      2. 4.2.2 Two Types of Data
    3. 4.3 Measurement Control Charts
      1. 4.3.1 >X¯- and R-Charts
      2. 4.3.2 A Few Notes about the X¯ and R-Charts
        1. 4.3.2.1 The Many Uses of the Charts
        2. 4.3.2.2 Selecting the Variable for Charting
        3. 4.3.2.3 Preparing Instruments
        4. 4.3.2.4 Preparing Check Sheets
        5. 4.3.2.5 False Alarm in the X¯-Chart
        6. 4.3.2.6 Determining Sample Size
        7. 4.3.2.7 Why 3-Sigma Limits?
        8. 4.3.2.8 Frequency of Sampling
        9. 4.3.2.9 Rational Subgrouping
        10. 4.3.2.10 When the Sample Size Changes for X¯- and R-Charts
        11. 4.3.2.11 Improving the Sensitivity of the X¯-Chart
        12. 4.3.2.12 Increasing the Sample Size
        13. 4.3.2.13 Use of Warning Limits
        14. 4.3.2.14 Use of Runs
        15. 4.3.2.15 Patterns in Control Charts
        16. 4.3.2.16 Control vs. Capability
      3. 4.3.3 X¯ and S-Charts
      4. 4.3.4 The Run Chart
    4. 4.4 Attribute Control Charts
      1. 4.4.1 The P-Chart
      2. 4.4.2 The C-Chart
      3. 4.4.3 Some Special Attribute Control Charts
        1. 4.4.3.1 The P-Chart with Varying Sample Sizes
        2. 4.4.3.2 The nP-Char
        3. 4.4.3.3 The Percent Defective Chart (100P-Chart)
        4. 4.4.3.4 The U-Chart
      4. 4.4.4 A Few Notes about the Attribute Control Charts
        1. 4.4.4.1 Meaning of the LCL on the P- or C-Chart
        2. 4.4.4.2 P-Chart for Many Characteristics
        3. 4.4.4.3 Use of Runs
        4. 4.4.4.4 Rational Subgrouping
    5. 4.5 Summary on Control Charts
      1. 4.5.1 Implementing SPC on Processes
    6. 4.6 Process Capability
      1. 4.6.1 Capability of a Process with Measurable Output
      2. 4.6.2 Capability Indices Cp and C pk
      3. 4.6.3 Capability of a Process with Attribute Output
    7. 4.7 Measurement System Analysis
      1. 4.7.1 Properties of Instruments
      2. 4.7.2 Measurement Standards
      3. 4.7.3 Evaluating an Instrument
        1. 4.7.3.1 Properties of a Good Instrument
        2. 4.7.3.2 Evaluation Methods
        3. 4.7.3.3 Resolution
        4. 4.7.3.4 Bias
        5. 4.7.3.5 Variability (Precision)
        6. 4.7.3.6 A Quick Check of Instrument Adequacy
    8. 4.8 Exercise
      1. 4.8.1 Practice Problems
      2. 4.8.2 Mini-Projects
        1. Mini-Project 4.1
        2. Mini-Project 4.2
        3. Mini-Project 4.3
  14. Chapter 5 Quality in Production—Process Control II
    1. 5.1 Derivation of Limits
      1. 5.1.1 Limits for the X¯-Chart
      2. 5.1.2 Limits for the R-Chart
      3. 5.1.3 Limits for the P-Chart
      4. 5.1.4 Limits for the C-Chart
    2. 5.2 Operating Characteristics of Control Charts
      1. 5.2.1 Operating Characteristics of an X¯-Chart
        1. 5.2.1.1 Computing the OC Curve of an X¯-Chart
      2. 5.2.2 OC Curve of an R-Chart
      3. 5.2.3 Average Run Length
      4. 5.2.4 OC Curve of a P-Chart
      5. 5.2.5 OC Curve of a C-Chart
    3. 5.3 Measurement Control Charts for Special Situations
      1. 5.3.1 X¯- and R-Charts When Standards for µ and/or s Are Given
        1. 5.3.1.1 Case I: µ Given, s Not Given
        2. 5.3.1.2 Case II: µ and s Given
      2. 5.3.2 Control Charts for Slow Processes
        1. 5.3.2.1 Control Chart for Individuals (X-Chart)
        2. 5.3.2.2 Moving Average and Moving Range Charts
        3. 5.3.2.3 Notes on Moving Average and Moving Range Charts
          1. What Is a Good Value for n?
          2. A Caution
      3. 5.3.3 The Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Chart
        1. 5.3.3.1 Limits for the EWMA Chart
      4. 5.3.4 Control Charts for Short Runs
        1. 5.3.4.1 The DNOM Chart
        2. 5.3.4.2 The Standardized DNOM Chart
    4. 5.4 Topics in Process Capability
      1. 5.4.1 The C pm Index
      2. 5.4.2 Comparison of C p?, C pk?, and C pm
      3. 5.4.3 Confidence Interval for Capability Indices
      4. 5.4.4 Motorola’s 6s Capability
    5. 5.5 Topics in the Design of Experiments
      1. 5.5.1 Analysis of Variance
      2. 5.5.2 The General 2k Design
      3. 5.5.3 The 24 Design
      4. 5.5.4 2k Design with Single Trial
      5. 5.5.5 Fractional Factorials: One-Half Fractions
        1. 5.5.5.1 Generating the One-Half Fraction
        2. 5.5.5.2 Calculating the Effects
      6. 5.5.6 Resolution of a Design
    6. 5.6 Exercise
      1. 5.6.1 Practice Problems
      2. 5.6.2 Mini-Projects
        1. Mini-Project 5.1
        2. Mini-Project 5.2
  15. Chapter 6 Managing for Quality
    1. 6.1 Managing Human Resources
      1. 6.1.1 Importance of Human Resources
      2. 6.1.2 Organizations
        1. 6.1.2.1 Organization Structures
        2. 6.1.2.2 Organizational Culture
      3. 6.1.3 Quality Leadership
        1. 6.1.3.1 Characteristics of a Good Leader
      4. 6.1.4 Customer Focus
      5. 6.1.5 Open Communications
      6. 6.1.6 Empowerment
      7. 6.1.7 Education and Training
        1. 6.1.7.1 Need for Training
          1. Necessity of Basic Skills
          2. Global Competition
          3. Continuous Change in Technology
          4. Diversity in the Workplace
          5. Need to Improve Continuously
        2. 6.1.7.2 Benefits from Training
        3. 6.1.7.3 Planning for Training
        4. 6.1.7.4 Training Methodology
        5. 6.1.7.5 Finding Resources
        6. 6.1.7.6 Evaluating Training Effectiveness
      8. 6.1.8 Teamwork
        1. 6.1.8.1 Team Building
        2. 6.1.8.2 Selecting Team Members
        3. 6.1.8.3 Defining the Team Mission
        4. 6.1.8.4 Taking Stock of the Team’s Strength
        5. 6.1.8.5 Building the Team
        6. 6.1.8.6 Basic Training for Quality Teams
        7. 6.1.8.7 Desirable Characteristics among Team Members
          1. Trust
          2. Selflessness
          3. Responsibility
          4. Enthusiasm
          5. Initiative
          6. Resourcefulness
          7. Tolerance
          8. Perseverance
        8. 6.1.8.8 Why a Team?
        9. 6.1.8.9 Ground Rules for Running a Team Meeting
        10. 6.1.8.10 Making the Teams Work
          1. Making Team Members Know One Another
          2. Resolving Conflicts Promptly
          3. Setting an Example by the Organization
          4. Rewarding Good Teams
        11. 6.1.8.11 Different Types of Teams
          1. Process Improvement Teams
          2. Cross-Functional Teams
          3. Self-Managed Teams
        12. 6.1.8.12 Quality Circles
      9. 6.1.9 Motivation Methods
      10. 6.1.10 Principles of Management
    2. 6.2 Strategic Planning for Quality
      1. 6.2.1 History of Planning
      2. 6.2.2 Making the Strategic Plan
      3. 6.2.3 Strategic Plan Deployment
    3. 6.3 Exercise
      1. 6.3.1 Practice Problems
      2. 6.3.2 Mini-Project
        1. Mini-Project 6.1
  16. Chapter 7 Quality in Procurement
    1. 7.1 Importance of Quality in Supplies
    2. 7.2 Establishing a Good Supplier Relationship
      1. 7.2.1 Essentials of a Good Supplier Relationship
    3. 7.3 Choosing and Certifying Suppliers
      1. 7.3.1 Single vs. Multiple Suppliers
      2. 7.3.2 Choosing a Supplier
      3. 7.3.3 Certifying a Supplier
    4. 7.4 Specifying the Supplies Completely
    5. 7.5 Auditing the Supplier
    6. 7.6 Supply Chain Optimization
      1. 7.6.1 The Trilogy of Supplier Relationship
      2. 7.6.2 Planning
      3. 7.6.3 Control
      4. 7.6.4 Improvement
    7. 7.7 Using Statistical Sampling for Acceptance
      1. 7.7.1 The Need for Sampling Inspection
      2. 7.7.2 Single Sampling Plans for Attributes
        1. 7.7.2.1 The Operating Characteristic Curve
        2. 7.7.2.2 Calculating the OC Curve of a Single Sampling Plan
        3. 7.7.2.3 Designing an SSP
        4. 7.7.2.4 Choosing a Suitable OC Curve
        5. 7.7.2.5 Choosing a Single Sampling Plan
      3. 7.7.3 Double Sampling Plans for Attributes
        1. 7.7.3.1 Why Use a DSP?
        2. 7.7.3.2 The OC Curve of a DSP
      4. 7.7.4 The Average Sample Number of a Sampling Plan
      5. 7.7.5 MIL-STD-105E (ANSI Z1.4)
        1. 7.7.5.1 Selecting a Sampling Plan from MIL-STD-105E
      6. 7.7.6 Average Outgoing Quality Limit
      7. 7.7.7 Some Notes about Sampling Plans
        1. 7.7.7.1 What Is a Good AQL?
        2. 7.7.7.2 Available Choices for AQL Values in the MIL-STD-105E
        3. 7.7.7.3 A Common Misconception about Sampling Plans
        4. 7.7.7.4 Sampling Plans vs. Control Charts
        5. 7.7.7.5 Variable Sampling Plans
    8. 7.8 Exercise
  17. Chapter 8 Continuous Improvement of Quality
    1. 8.1 The Need for Continuous Improvement
    2. 8.2 The Problem-Solving Methodology
      1. 8.2.1 Deming’s PDCA Cycle
      2. 8.2.2 Juran’s Breakthrough Sequence
      3. 8.2.3 The Generic Problem-Solving Methodology
    3. 8.3 Quality Improvement Tools
      1. 8.3.1 Cause-and-Effect Diagram
      2. 8.3.2 Brainstorming
      3. 8.3.3 Benchmarking
      4. 8.3.4 Pareto Analysis
      5. 8.3.5 Histogram
      6. 8.3.6 Control Charts
      7. 8.3.7 Scatter Plots
      8. 8.3.8 Regression Analysis
        1. 8.3.8.1 Simple Linear Regression
        2. 8.3.8.2 Model Adequacy
        3. 8.3.8.3 Test of Significance
        4. 8.3.8.4 Multiple Linear Regression
        5. 8.3.8.5 Nonlinear Regression
      9. 8.3.9 Correlation Analysis
        1. 8.3.9.1 Significance in Correlation
    4. 8.4 Lean Manufacturing
      1. 8.4.1 Quality Control
      2. 8.4.2 Quantity Control
      3. 8.4.3 Waste and Cost Control
      4. 8.4.4 Total Productive Maintenance
      5. 8.4.5 Stable, Standardized Processes
      6. 8.4.6 Visual Management
      7. 8.4.7 Leveling and Balancing
      8. 8.4.8 The Lean Culture
    5. 8.5 Exercise
      1. 8.5.1 Practice Problems
      2. 8.5.2 Term Project
  18. Chapter 9 A System for Quality
    1. 9.1 The Systems Approach
    2. 9.2 Dr. Deming’s System
      1. 9.2.1 Long-Term Planning
        1. Point 1: Create Constancy of Purpose for Improvement of Product and Service
      2. 9.2.2 Cultural Change
        1. Point 2: Adopt the New Philosophy
      3. 9.2.3 Prevention Orientation
        1. Point 3: Cease Dependence on Mass Inspection
      4. 9.2.4 Quality in Procurement
        1. Point 4: End the Practice of Awarding Business on the Basis of Price Tag Alone
      5. 9.2.5 Continuous Improvement
        1. Point 5: Continuously Improve the System of Production and Service
      6. 9.2.6 Training, Education, Empowerment, and Teamwork
        1. Point 6: Institute Training
        2. Point 7: Adopt and Institute Leadership
        3. Point 8: Drive Out Fear
        4. Point 9: Break Down Barriers between Staff
        5. Point 10: Eliminate Slogans, Exhortations, and Targets for the Workforce
        6. Point 11(a): Eliminate Numerical Quotas for the Workforce
        7. Point 11(b): Eliminate Numerical Goals for People in Management
        8. Point 12: Remove Barriers that Rob People of Pride of Workmanship
        9. Point 13: Encourage Education and Self-Improvement for Everyone
        10. Point 14: Take Action to Accomplish the Transformation
    3. 9.3 Dr. Juran’s System
      1. 9.3.1 Quality Planning
      2. 9.3.2 Quality Control
      3. 9.3.3 Quality Improvement
    4. 9.4 Dr. Feigenbaum’s System
    5. 9.5 Baldrige Award Criteria
      1. 9.5.1 Criterion 1: Leadership
        1. 9.5.1.1 Senior Leadership
        2. 9.5.1.2 Governance and Societal Responsibilities
      2. 9.5.2 Criterion 2: Strategic Planning
        1. 9.5.2.1 Strategy Development
        2. 9.5.2.2 Strategy Implementation
      3. 9.5.3 Criterion 3: Customers
        1. 9.5.3.1 Voice of the Customer
        2. 9.5.3.2 Customer Engagement
      4. 9.5.4 Criterion 4: Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge Management
        1. 9.5.4.1 Measurement, Analysis, and Improvement of Organizational Performance
        2. 9.5.4.2 Information and Knowledge Management
      5. 9.5.5 Criterion 5: Workforce
        1. 9.5.5.1 Workforce Environment
        2. 9.5.5.2 Workforce Engagement
      6. 9.5.6 Criterion 6: Operations
        1. 9.5.6.1 Work Processes
        2. 9.5.6.2 Operational Effectiveness
      7. 9.5.7 Criterion 7: Results
        1. 9.5.7.1 Product and Process Results
        2. 9.5.7.2 Customer Results
        3. 9.5.7.3 Workforce Results
        4. 9.5.7.4 Leadership and Governance Results
        5. 9.5.7.5 Financial and Market Outcomes
    6. 9.6 ISO 9000 Quality Management Systems
      1. 9.6.1 The ISO 9000 Standards
      2. 9.6.2 The Seven Quality Management Principles
        1. QMP 1 Customer Focus
        2. QMP 2 Leadership
        3. QMP 3 Engagement of People
        4. QMP 4 Process Approach
        5. QMP 5 Improvement
        6. QMP 6 Evidence-Based Decision Making
        7. QMP 7 Relationship Management
    7. 9.7 ISO 9001:2015 Quality Management Systems—Requirements
      1. 9.7.1 Scope
      2. 9.7.2 Normative Reference
      3. 9.7.3 Terms and Definitions
      4. 9.7.4 Context of the Organization
        1. 9.7.4.1 Understanding the Organization and its Context
        2. 9.7.4.2 Understanding the Needs and Expectation of Interested Parties
        3. 9.7.4.3 Determining the Scope of the Quality Management System
        4. 9.7.4.4 Quality Management System and its Processes
      5. 9.7.5 Leadership
        1. 9.7.5.1 Leadership and Commitment
        2. 9.7.5.2 Policy The top management shall establish, implement, and maintain the quality policy in accordance with their needs. The quality policy shall be maintained as a record and be communicated, understood, and applied. It should also be available to relevant interested parties.
        3. 9.7.5.3 Organizational Roles, Responsibilities, and Authorities
      6. 9.7.6 Planning
        1. 9.7.6.1 Actions to Address Risks and Opportunities
        2. 9.7.6.2 Quality Objectives and Planning to Achieve Them
        3. 9.7.6.3 Planning of Changes
      7. 9.7.7 Support
        1. 9.7.7.1 Resources
        2. 9.7.7.2 Competence
        3. 9.7.7.3 Awareness
        4. 9.7.7.4 Communication
        5. 9.7.7.5 Documented Information
      8. 9.7.8 Operation
        1. 9.7.8.1 Operation Planning and Control
        2. 9.7.8.2 Requirements for Products and Services
        3. 9.7.8.3 Design and Development of Products and Services
        4. 9.7.8.4 Control of Externally Provided Processes, Products, and Services
        5. 9.7.8.5 Production and Service Provision
        6. 9.7.8.6 Release of Products and Services
        7. 9.7.8.7 Control of Nonconforming Outputs
      9. 9.7.9 Performance Evaluation
        1. 9.7.9.1 Monitoring, Measurement Analysis, and Evaluation
        2. 9.7.9.2 Internal Audit
        3. 9.7.9.3 Management Review
      10. 9.7.10 Improvement
        1. 9.7.10.1 General
        2. 9.7.10.2 Nonconformity and Corrective Action
        3. 9.7.10.3 Continual Improvement
    8. 9.8 The Six Sigma System
      1. 9.8.1 Six Themes of Six Sigma
        1. Theme 1: Focus on the Customer
        2. Theme 2: Data and Fact-Driven Management
        3. Theme 3: Process Focus
        4. Theme 4: Proactive Management
        5. Theme 5: Boundaryless Collaboration
        6. Theme 6: Drive for Perfection (with Tolerance for Failure)
      2. 9.8.2 The 6s Measure
      3. 9.8.3 The Three Strategies
      4. Process Improvement
      5. Process Design/Redesign
      6. Process Management
      7. 9.8.4 The Two Improvement Processes
      8. 9.8.5 The Five-Step Road Map
      9. 9.8.6 The Organization for the Six Sigma System
    9. 9.9 Summary of Quality Management Systems
    10. 9.10 Exercise
      1. 9.10.1 Practice Problems
        1. Deming System
        2. Juran System
        3. Baldrige System
        4. ISO 9000 System
        5. Six Sigma System
      2. 9.10.2 Mini-Projects
        1. Mini-Project 9.1 The above set of 30 questions has been created to help students understand the various systems in good detail. However, it is only one of several possible sets. Generate another set of 30 questions, six from each system, similar to but different from the above set.
        2. Mini-Project 9.2 Compare the three modern systems— Baldrige Award, ISO 9000, and Six Sigma—and identify their differences.
  19. Appendix 1Statistical Tables
  20. Appendix 2Answers to Selected Exercises
  21. Index

Product information

  • Title: A First Course in Quality Engineering, 3rd Edition
  • Author(s): K.S. Krishnamoorthi, V. Ram Krishnamoorthi, Arunkumar Pennathur
  • Release date: September 2018
  • Publisher(s): CRC Press
  • ISBN: 9781498764230