reference parameter a formal parameter that receives the location (memory address)
of the caller’s actual parameter
reference type a simple data type consisting of an unbounded set of values, each of
which is the address of a variable of a given type. The only operation defined on
a reference variable is initialization, after which every appearance of the variable
is implicitly dereferenced
refinement in top-down design, the expansion of a module specification to form a
new module that solves a major step in the computer solution of a problem
relational operators operators that state that a relationship exists between two
values; in C++, symbols that cause the computer to perform operations to verify
whether or not the indicated relationship exists
representational error arithmetic error caused when the precision of the true result
of arithmetic operations is greater than the precision of the machine
reserved word a word that has special meaning in a programming language; it
cannot be used as an identifier
result see function result
return the point at which the computer comes back from executing a function
right-justified placed as far to the right as possible within a fixed number of
character positions
robust a descriptive term for a program that can recover from erroneous inputs and
keep running
run-time stack a data structure that keeps track of activation records during the
execution of a program
scope the region of program code where it is legal to reference (use) an identifier
scope rules the rules that determine where in a program a given identifier may be
accessed, given the point at which the identifier is declared
scratch file see internal file
secondary storage device see auxiliary storage device
selection control structure a form of program structure allowing the computer to
select one among possible actions to perform based on given circumstances; also
called a branching control structure
self the instance object (class) used in the invocation of a method
self-documenting code a program containing meaningful identifiers as well as
judiciously used clarifying comments
semantics the set of rules that gives the meaning of instruction written in a
programming language
semihierarchical implementation a modular solution implemented by functions in
a manner that preserves the hierarchical design, except that a function used by
multiple modules is implemented once, outside of the hierarchy, and called in each
place it is needed
sentinel a special data value used in certain event-controlled loops as a signal that
the loop should be exited
sequence a structure in which statements are executed one after another
shallow copy an operation that copies one class object to another without copying
any pointed-to data
side effect any effect of one function on another that is not part of the explicitly
defined interface between them
significant digits those digits from the first nonzero digit on the left to the last
nonzero digit on the right (plus any zero digits that are exact)
simulation a problem solution that has been arrived at through the application of an
algorithm designed to model the behavior of physical systems, materials, or
size (of an array) the physical space reserved for an array
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