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A Practical Introduction to Human-in-the-Loop Cyber-Physical Systems

Book Description

The first book focusing on one of the hottest new topics in Internet of Things systems research and development

Studies estimate that by 2020 we will have a vast Internet of Things (IoT) network comprising 26 billion connected devices, including everything from light bulbs to refrigerators, coffee makers to cars. From the beginning, the concept of cyber-physical systems (CPS), or the sensing and control of physical phenomena through networks of devices that work together to achieve common goals, has been implicit in the IoT enterprise. This book focuses on the increasingly hot topic of Human-in-the-loop Cyber-Physical Systems (HiTLCPS)—CPSs that incorporate human responses in IoT equation.

Why have we not yet integrated the human component into CPSs? What are the major challenges to achieving HiTLCPS? How can we take advantage of ubiquitous sensing platforms, such as smartphones and personal devices to achieve that goal? While mature HiTLCPS designs have yet to be achieved, or a general consensus reached on underlying HiTLCPS requirements, principles, and theory, researchers and developers worldwide are on the cusp of realizing them. With contributions from researchers at the cutting edge of HiTLCPS R&D, this book addresses many of these questions from the theoretical and practical points of view.

  • An essential primer on a rapidly emerging Internet-of-Things concept, focusing on human-centric applications
  • Discusses new topics which, until now, have only been available in research papers scattered throughout the world literature
  • Addressed fundamental concepts in depth while providing practical insights into the development of complete HiTLCPS systems
  • Includes a companion website containing full source-code for all of the applications described

This book is an indispensable resource for researchers and app developers eager to explore HiTL concepts and include them into their designs. It is also an excellent primer for advanced undergraduates and graduate students studying IoT, CPS, and HiTLCPS.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
    1. Copyright
    2. Dedication
  3. List of Figures
  4. List of Tables
  5. Foreword
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. List of Abbreviations
  9. About the Companion Website
    1. Chapter 1: Introduction
      1. 1.1 The Rise of Cyber-Physical Systems
      2. 1.2 Humans as Elements of Cyber-Physical Systems
      3. 1.3 Objectives and Structure
  10. Part I: Evolution and Theory
    1. Chapter 2: Evolution of HiTL Technologies
      1. 2.1 “Things”, Sensors, and the Real World
      2. 2.2 Human Sensing and Virtual Communities
      3. 2.3 In Summary..
    2. Chapter 3: Theory of HiTLCPSs
      1. 3.1 Taxonomies for HiTLCPSs
      2. 3.2 Data Acquisition
      3. 3.3 State Inference
      4. 3.4 Actuation
      5. 3.5 In Summary..
    3. Chapter 4: HITL Technologies and Applications
      1. 4.1 Technologies for Supporting HiTLCPS
      2. 4.2 Experimental Projects
      3. 4.3 In Summary..
  11. Part II: Human-in-the-Loop: Hands-On
    1. Chapter 5: A Sample App
      1. 5.1 A Sample Behavior Change Intervention App
      2. 5.2 The Sample App's Base Architecture
      3. 5.3 Enhancing the Sample App with HiTL Emotion-awareness
      4. 5.4 In Summary..
    2. Chapter 6: Setting up the Development Environment
      1. 6.1 Installing Android Studio
      2. 6.2 Cloning the Android Project
      3. 6.3 Deploying the Server
      4. 6.4 Testing the Sample App
      5. 6.5 In Summary..
    3. Chapter 7: Data Acquisition
      1. 7.1 Creating the EmotionTasker
      2. 7.2 Processing Sensory Data
      3. 7.3 In Summary..
    4. Chapter 8: State Inference
      1. 8.1 Implementing a Neural Network
      2. 8.2 Requesting User Feedback
      3. 8.3 Processing User Feedback
      4. 8.4 In Summary..
    5. Chapter 9: Actuation
      1. 9.1 Handling Emotions on the Server
      2. 9.2 Finishing up EmotionTasker
      3. 9.3 Providing Positive Reinforcement
      4. 9.4 In Summary…
  12. Part III: Future of Human-In-the-Loop Cyber-Physical Systems
    1. Chapter 10: Requirements and Challenges for HiTL Applications
      1. 10.1 Resilience
      2. 10.2 Security and Privacy
      3. 10.3 Standard Communications
      4. 10.4 Localization
      5. 10.5 State Inference
      6. 10.6 Safety
      7. 10.7 In Summary…
    2. Chapter 11: Human-in-the-Loop Constraints
      1. 11.1 Technical Limitations
      2. 11.2 Ethical limitations
  13. Appendix A: EmotionTasker's full code
  14. References
    1. Index
  15. End User License Agreement