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AC Circuits and Power Systems in Practice

Book Description

The essential guide that combines power system fundamentals with the practical aspects of equipment design and operation in modern power systems 

Written by an experienced power engineer, AC Circuits and Power Systems in Practice offers a comprehensive guide that reviews power system fundamentals and network theorems while exploring the practical aspects of equipment design and application. The author covers a wide-range of topics including basic circuit theorems, phasor diagrams, per-unit quantities and symmetrical component theory, as well as active and reactive power and their effects on network stability, voltage support and voltage collapse. Magnetic circuits, reactor and transformer design are analyzed, as is the operation of step voltage regulators. In addition, detailed introductions are provided to earthing systems in LV and MV networks, the adverse effects of harmonics on power equipment and power system protection. Finally, European and American engineering standards are presented where appropriate throughout the text, to familiarize the reader with their use and application.    

This book is written as a practical power engineering text for engineering students and recent graduates. It contains more than 400 illustrations and is designed to provide the reader with a broad introduction to the subject and to facilitate further study. Many of the examples included come from industry and are not normally covered in undergraduate syllabi. They are provided to assist in bridging the gap between tertiary study and industrial practice, and to assist the professional development of recent graduates. The material presented is easy to follow and includes both mathematical and visual representations using phasor diagrams. Problems included at the end of most chapters are designed to walk the reader through practical applications of the associated theory. 

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Preface
  4. Acknowledgements
  5. Part I
    1. 1 Power Systems
      1. 1.1 Three‐phase System of AC Voltages
      2. 1.2 Low Voltage Distribution
      3. 1.3 Examples of Distribution Transformers
      4. 1.4 Practical Magnitude Limits for LV Loads
      5. 1.5 Medium Voltage Network
      6. 1.6 Transmission and Sub‐Transmission Networks
      7. 1.7 Generation of Electrical Energy
      8. 1.8 Sources
      9. Further Reading
    2. 2 Review of AC Circuit Theory and Application of Phasor Diagrams
      1. 2.1 Representation of AC Voltages and Currents
      2. 2.2 RMS Measurement of Time Varying AC Quantities
      3. 2.3 Phasor Notation (Phasor Diagram Analysis)
      4. 2.4 Passive Circuit Components: Resistors, Capacitors and Inductors
      5. 2.5 Review of Sign Conventions and Network Theorems
      6. 2.6 AC Circuit Analysis Examples
      7. 2.7 Resonance in AC Circuits
      8. 2.8 Problems
      9. 2.9 Practical Experiment
    3. 3 Active Power, Reactive Power and Power Factor
      1. 3.1 Single‐Phase AC Power
      2. 3.2 Active Power
      3. 3.3 Reactive Power
      4. 3.4 Apparent Power or the volt‐amp Product, S
      5. 3.5 Three‐Phase Power
      6. 3.6 Power Factor
      7. 3.7 Power Factor Correction
      8. 3.8 Typical Industrial Load Profiles
      9. 3.9 Directional Power Flows
      10. 3.10 Energy Retailing
      11. 3.11 Problems
    4. 4 Magnetic Circuits, Inductors and Transformers
      1. 4.1 Magnetic Circuits
      2. 4.2 Magnetic Circuit Model
      3. 4.3 Gapped Cores and Effective Permeability
      4. 4.4 Inductance Calculations
      5. 4.5 Core Materials
      6. 4.6 Magnetising Characteristics of GOSS
      7. 4.7 Energy Stored in the Air Gap
      8. 4.8 EMF Equation
      9. 4.9 Magnetic Circuit Topologies
      10. 4.10 Magnetising Losses
      11. 4.11 Two‐Winding Transformer Operation
      12. 4.12 Transformer VA Ratings and Efficiency
      13. 4.13 Two‐Winding Transformer Equivalent Circuit
      14. 4.14 The Per‐Unit System
      15. 4.15 Transformer Short‐Circuit and Open‐Circuit Tests
      16. 4.16 Transformer Phasor Diagram
      17. 4.17 Current Transformers
      18. 4.18 Problems
      19. 4.19 Sources
    5. 5 Symmetrical Components
      1. 5.1 Symmetrical Component Theory
      2. 5.2 Sequence Networks and Fault Analysis
      3. 5.3 Network Fault Connections
      4. 5.4 Measurement of Zero‐sequence Components (Residual Current and Voltage)
      5. 5.5 Phase‐to‐Ground Fault Currents Reflected from a Star to a Delta Connected Winding
      6. 5.6 Sequence Components Remote from a Fault
      7. 5.7 Problems
      8. 5.8 Sources
    6. 6 Power Flows in AC Networks
      1. 6.1 Power Flow Directions
      2. 6.2 Synchronous Condenser
      3. 6.3 Synchronous Motor
      4. 6.4 Generalised Power Flow Analysis
      5. 6.5 Low X/R Networks
      6. 6.6 Steady State Transmission Stability Limit
      7. 6.7 Voltage Collapse in Power Systems
      8. 6.8 Problems
      9. 6.9 Sources
  6. Part II
    1. 7 Three‐Phase Transformers
      1. 7.1 Positive and Negative Sequence Impedance
      2. 7.2 Transformer Zero‐Sequence Impedance
      3. 7.3 Transformer Vector Groups
      4. 7.4 Transformer Voltage Regulation
      5. 7.5 Magnetising Current Harmonics
      6. 7.6 Tap‐changing Techniques
      7. 7.7 Parallel Connection of Transformers
      8. 7.8 Transformer Nameplate
      9. 7.9 Step Voltage Regulator
      10. 7.10 Problems
      11. 7.11 Sources
    2. 8 Voltage Transformers
      1. 8.1 Inductive and Capacitive Voltage Transformers
      2. 8.2 Voltage Transformer Errors
      3. 8.3 Voltage Transformer Equivalent Circuit
      4. 8.4 Voltage Transformer ‘Error Lines’
      5. 8.5 Re‐rating Voltage Transformers
      6. 8.6 Accuracy Classes for Protective Voltage Transformers
      7. 8.7 Dual‐Wound Voltage Transformers
      8. 8.8 Earthing and Protection of Voltage Transformers
      9. 8.9 Non‐Conventional Voltage Transformers
      10. 8.10 Problems
      11. 8.11 Sources
    3. 9 Current Transformers
      1. 9.1 CT Secondary Currents and Ratios
      2. 9.2 Current Transformer Errors and Standards
      3. 9.3 IEEE C57.13 Metering Class Magnitude and Phase Errors
      4. 9.4 Current Transformer Equivalent Circuit
      5. 9.5 Magnetising Admittance Variation and CT Compensation Techniques
      6. 9.6 Composite Error
      7. 9.7 Instrument Security Factor for Metering CTs
      8. 9.8 Protection Current Transformers
      9. 9.9 Inter‐Turn Voltage Ratings
      10. 9.10 Non‐Conventional Current Transformers
      11. 9.11 Problems
      12. 9.12 Sources
    4. 10 Energy Metering
      1. 10.1 Metering Intervals
      2. 10.2 General Metering Analysis using Symmetrical Components
      3. 10.3 Metering Errors
      4. 10.4 Ratio Correction Factors
      5. 10.5 Reactive Power Measurement Error
      6. 10.6 Evaluation of the Overall Error for an Installation
      7. 10.7 Commissioning and Auditing of Metering Installations
      8. 10.8 Problems
      9. 10.9 Sources
    5. 11 Earthing Systems
      1. 11.1 Effects of Electricity on the Human Body
      2. 11.2 Residual Current Devices
      3. 11.3 LV Earthing Systems
      4. 11.4 LV Earthing Systems used Worldwide
      5. 11.5 Medium Voltage Earthing Systems
      6. 11.6 High Voltage Earthing
      7. 11.7 Exercise
      8. 11.8 Problems (Earthing Grid Design)
      9. 11.9 Sources
    6. 12 Introduction to Power System Protection
      1. 12.1 Fundamental Principles of Protection
      2. 12.2 Protection Relays
      3. 12.3 Primary and Backup Protection (Duplicate Protection)
      4. 12.4 Protection Zones
      5. 12.5 Overcurrent Protection
      6. 12.6 Differential Protection
      7. 12.7 Frame Leakage and Arc Flash Busbar Protection
      8. 12.8 Distance Protection (Impedance Protection)
      9. 12.9 Problems
      10. 12.10 Sources
    7. 13 Harmonics in Power Systems
      1. 13.1 Measures of Harmonic Distortion
      2. 13.2 Resolving a Non‐linear Current or Voltage into its Harmonic Components (Fourier Series)
      3. 13.3 Harmonic Phase Sequences
      4. 13.4 Triplen Harmonic Currents
      5. 13.5 Harmonic Losses in Transformers
      6. 13.6 Power Factor in the Presence of Harmonics
      7. 13.7 Management of Harmonics
      8. 13.8 Harmonic Standards
      9. 13.9 Measurement of Harmonics
      10. 13.10 Problems
      11. 13.11 Sources
    8. 14 Operational Aspects of Power Engineering
      1. 14.1 Device Numbers
      2. 14.2 One Line Diagram (OLD)
      3. 14.3 Switchgear Topologies
      4. 14.4 Switching Plans, Equipment Isolation and Permit to Work Procedures
      5. 14.5 Electrical Safety
      6. 14.6 Measurements with an Incorrectly Configured Multimeter
      7. 14.7 Sources
  7. Index
  8. End User License Agreement