Much of the technology foundation upon which the Internet is based was developed by university and military researchers nearly 50 years ago. To understand the current status of the Internet, it is useful to briefly review the historical development of the Internet and the underlying technology. In 1965, a researcher at MIT connected a computer in Massachusetts to a computer in California, using dial-up telephone lines. During this time, the U.S. military needed a method of sharing data and research among universities that were working on defense research projects. In 1969, the large computers at four major universities were connected via leased telephone lines. This network, used by the United States Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, grew into a network called ARPANET. The purpose of the network was to share military research data among UCLA, UC Santa Barbara, Stanford, and the University of Utah. Over the next few months, many other universities, NASA, and the Rand Corporation were connected to this network.

Two of the technologies developed for ARPANET form the basic foundation of the Internet of today. Packet switching and routers are necessary to send data over the network. Packet switching is the method used to send data over a computer network. Computer data are divided into packets (small packages of data). Each packet is sent individually over the network, with each packet possibly transmitted via a different route. ...

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