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Acoustics: Sound Fields, Transducers and Vibration, 2nd Edition by Tim Mellow, Leo Beranek

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3.5. Electromechanical transducers

Two types of electromechanical transducers, electromagnetic and electrostatic, are commonly employed in loudspeakers and microphones. Both may be represented by transformers with properties that permit the joining of mechanical and electrical circuits into one schematic diagram.

Electromagnetic-mechanical transducer

This type of transducer can be characterized by four terminals. Two have voltage and current associated with them. The other two have velocity and force as the measurable properties. Familiar examples are the moving-coil loudspeaker or microphone and the variable-reluctance earphone or microphone.
The simplest type of moving-coil transducer is a single length of wire in a uniform magnetic field ...

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