A horn can be represented as a 2-port network, which is described by the following transmission-parameter matrix:

$\left[\begin{array}{c}{\tilde{p}}_{T}\\ {\tilde{U}}_{T}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{cc}{a}_{11}& {a}_{12}\\ {a}_{21}& {a}_{22}\end{array}\right]\xb7\left[\begin{array}{c}{\tilde{p}}_{M}\\ {\tilde{U}}_{M}\end{array}\right]=A\xb7\left[\begin{array}{c}{\tilde{p}}_{M}\\ {\tilde{U}}_{M}\end{array}\right]$

(9.59)

where
${\tilde{p}}_{T}$
and
${\tilde{U}}_{T}$
are the pressure and volume velocity respectively at the throat and
${\tilde{p}}_{M}$
and

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