14.18. Radiation from a circular shallow spherical shell in an infinite baffle—model of a dome-shaped dynamic loudspeaker coupled to its surrounding air 
The spherical shell is a somewhat commonly used structure for dynamic loudspeaker diaphragms ranging from small Bluetooth devices to hi-fi midrange units and tweeters. To simplify our analysis, we shall exclude the ring surround, basket, magnet, and rear cavity from the model and instead assume that the dome is open to free space on both sides and mounted in a planar baffle, which extends to infinity from its perimeter. However, a specific acoustic impedance z
is included in the complex wavenumber, which may be used to model distributed impedances such as external resistance (e.g., ...