# CHAPTER 16ADJUSTMENT OF HORIZONTAL SURVEYS: TRAVERSES AND HORIZONTAL NETWORKS

## 16.1 INTRODUCTION TO TRAVERSE ADJUSTMENTS

Of the many methods that exist for traverse adjustment, the characteristic that distinguishes the method of least squares from other methods is that distance, angle, and direction observations are adjusted simultaneously. Furthermore, the adjusted observations not only satisfy all geometrical conditions for the traverse, but they also provide the most probable values for the given set of data. Additionally, the observations can be weighted rigorously based on their estimated errors and adjusted accordingly. Given these facts, together with the computational power now provided by computers, it is hard to justify not using least squares for all traverse adjustment work.

In this chapter, we describe methods for making traverse adjustments using the least squares method. As was the case in triangulation adjustments, traverses can be adjusted by least squares using either observation equations or conditional equations. Again, because of the relative ease with which the equations can be written and solved, the parametric observation equation approach will be discussed.

## 16.2 OBSERVATION EQUATIONS

When adjusting a traverse using parametric equations, an observation equation is written for each distance, direction, or angle. The necessary linearized observation equations ...

Get Adjustment Computations, 6th Edition now with the O’Reilly learning platform.

O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from nearly 200 publishers.