Preface

I don’t like to think I have many regrets, but it’s hard to believe anything good came out of a particular lazy moment in 2011 when I was looking into how to best distribute tough discrete optimization problems over clusters of computers. My advisor explained this newfangled Spark thing he had heard of, and I basically wrote off the concept as too good to be true and promptly got back to writing my undergrad thesis in MapReduce. Since then, Spark and I have both matured a bit, but one of us has seen a meteoric rise that’s nearly impossible to avoid making “ignite” puns about. Cut to two years later, and it has become crystal clear that Spark is something worth paying attention to.

Spark’s long lineage of predecessors, running from MPI to MapReduce, makes it possible to write programs that take advantage of massive resources while abstracting away the nitty-gritty details of distributed systems. As much as data processing needs have motivated the development of these frameworks, in a way the field of big data has become so related to these frameworks that its scope is defined by what these frameworks can handle. Spark’s promise is to take this a little further—to make writing distributed programs feel like writing regular programs.

Spark will be great at giving ETL pipelines huge boosts in performance and easing some of the pain that feeds the MapReduce programmer’s daily chant of despair (“why? whyyyyy?”) to the Hadoop gods. But the exciting thing for me about it has always been what it opens up for complex analytics. With a paradigm that supports iterative algorithms and interactive exploration, Spark is finally an open source framework that allows a data scientist to be productive with large data sets.

I think the best way to teach data science is by example. To that end, my colleagues and I have put together a book of applications, trying to touch on the interactions between the most common algorithms, data sets, and design patterns in large-scale analytics. This book isn’t meant to be read cover to cover. Page to a chapter that looks like something you’re trying to accomplish, or that simply ignites your interest.

What’s in This Book

The first chapter will place Spark within the wider context of data science and big data analytics. After that, each chapter will comprise a self-contained analysis using Spark. The second chapter will introduce the basics of data processing in Spark and Scala through a use case in data cleansing. The next few chapters will delve into the meat and potatoes of machine learning with Spark, applying some of the most common algorithms in canonical applications. The remaining chapters are a bit more of a grab bag and apply Spark in slightly more exotic applications—for example, querying Wikipedia through latent semantic relationships in the text or analyzing genomics data.

Using Code Examples

Supplemental material (code examples, exercises, etc.) is available for download at https://github.com/sryza/aas.

This book is here to help you get your job done. In general, if example code is offered with this book, you may use it in your programs and documentation. You do not need to contact us for permission unless you’re reproducing a significant portion of the code. For example, writing a program that uses several chunks of code from this book does not require permission. Selling or distributing a CD-ROM of examples from O’Reilly books does require permission. Answering a question by citing this book and quoting example code does not require permission. Incorporating a significant amount of example code from this book into your product’s documentation does require permission.

We appreciate, but do not require, attribution. An attribution usually includes the title, author, publisher, and ISBN. For example: "Advanced Analytics with Spark by Sandy Ryza, Uri Laserson, Sean Owen, and Josh Wills (O’Reilly). Copyright 2015 Sandy Ryza, Uri Laserson, Sean Owen, and Josh Wills, 978-1-491-91276-8.”

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Acknowledgments

It goes without saying that you wouldn’t be reading this book if it were not for the existence of Apache Spark and MLlib. We all owe thanks to the team that has built and open sourced it, and the hundreds of contributors who have added to it.

We would like to thank everyone who spent a great deal of time reviewing the content of the book with expert eyes: Michael Bernico, Ian Buss, Jeremy Freeman, Chris Fregly, Debashish Ghosh, Juliet Hougland, Jonathan Keebler, Frank Nothaft, Nick Pentreath, Kostas Sakellis, Marcelo Vanzin, and Juliet Hougland again. Thanks all! We owe you one. This has greatly improved the structure and quality of the result.

I (Sandy) also would like to thank Jordan Pinkus and Richard Wang for helping me with some of the theory behind the risk chapter.

Thanks to Marie Beaugureau and O’Reilly, for the experience and great support in getting this book published and into your hands.

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