Conventions

In this book, you will find a number of text styles that distinguish between different kinds of information. Here are some examples of these styles and an explanation of their meaning.

Code words in text, database table names, folder names, filenames, file extensions, pathnames, dummy URLs, user input, and Twitter handles are shown as follows: "We can include other contexts through the use of the include directive."

A block of code is set as follows:

df = data.frame(
Year=c(2013, 2013, 2013), 
Country=c("Arab World","Carribean States", "Central Europe"),
LifeExpectancy=c(71, 72, 76))

Any command-line input or output is written as follows:

IrisBySpecies <- split(iris,iris$Species)

New terms and important words are shown in bold. Words ...

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