5Battery State of Power Estimation

5.1 Background

The state of power (SOP) estimation of battery systems is indispensable to ensure the safe and reliable operation of electric vehicles (EVs). The SOP evaluates the maximum charge and discharge capability of battery systems. It can be used to estimate power requirements on accelerating and climbing, optimally balance power between the battery system and other power sources such as ultracapacitors, avoid overcharge or over‐discharge and maximize the ability of regenerative braking.

In this chapter, instantaneous SOP estimation methods are discussed in Section 5.2, including the hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) method, the state of charge (SOC)‐limited method, the voltage‐limited method, and the multi‐constrained dynamic (MCD) method. Then, the SOC‐limited method, the voltage‐limited method, and the MCD method are extended to continuous SOP estimation in Section 5.3; the adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF) and recursive least squares (RLS) are utilized to jointly estimate SOC, SOP, and model parameters in the presence of uncertainties of battery states and model parameters. Section 5.4 provides the summary.

5.2 Instantaneous SOP Estimation Methods

There are four instantaneous SOP (or peak power) estimation methods.

  1. 1. The HPPC method [1]. This method calculates instantaneously available current and power by taking the upper and lower voltage limits into consideration. It is a common method for battery management system ...

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