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Advanced DC/AC Inverters

Book Description

DC/AC inversion technology is of vital importance for industrial applications, including electrical vehicles and renewable energy systems, which require a large number of inverters. In recent years, inversion technology has developed rapidly, with new topologies improving the power factor and increasing power efficiency. Proposing many novel approaches, Advanced DC/AC Inverters: Applications in Renewable Energy describes advanced DC/AC inverters that can be used for renewable energy systems. The book introduces more than 100 topologies of advanced inverters originally developed by the authors, including more than 50 new circuits. It also discusses recently published cutting-edge topologies.

Novel PWM and Multilevel Inverters

The book first covers traditional pulse-width-modulation (PWM) inverters before moving on to new quasi-impedance source inverters and soft-switching PWM inverters. It then examines multilevel DC/AC inverters, which have overcome the drawbacks of PWM inverters and provide greater scope for industrial applications. The authors propose four novel multilevel inverters: laddered multilevel inverters, super-lift modulated inverters, switched-capacitor inverters, and switched-inductor inverters. With simple structures and fewer components, these inverters are well suited for renewable energy systems.

Get the Best Switching Angles for Any Multilevel Inverter

A key topic for multilevel inverters is the need to manage the switching angles to obtain the lowest total harmonic distortion (THD). The authors outline four methods for finding the best switching angles and use simulation waveforms to verify the design. The optimum switching angles for multilevel DC/AC inverters are also listed in tables for quick reference.

Application Examples of DC/AC Inverters in Renewable Energy Systems

Highlighting the importance of inverters in improving energy saving and power-supply quality, the final chapter of the book supplies design examples for applications in wind turbine and solar panel energy systems. Written by pioneers in advanced conversion and inversion technology, this book guides readers in designing more effective DC/AC inverters for use in renewable energy systems.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Authors
  8. 1. Introduction
    1. 1.1 Symbols and Factors Used in This Book
      1. 1.1.1 Symbols Used in Power Systems
      2. 1.1.2 Factors and Symbols Used in AC Power Systems
      3. 1.1.3 Factors and Symbols Used in DC Power Systems
    2. 1.2 FFT—Fast Fourier Transform
      1. 1.2.1 Central Symmetrical Periodical Function
      2. 1.2.2 Axial (Mirror) Symmetrical Periodical Function
      3. 1.2.3 Nonperiodic Function
      4. 1.2.4 Useful Formulae and Data
      5. 1.2.5 Examples of FFT Applications
    3. 1.3 DC/AC Inverters
      1. 1.3.1 Categorizing Existing Inverters
      2. 1.3.2 Updated Circuits
      3. 1.3.3 Soft Switching Methods
    4. References
  9. 2. Pulse Width-Modulated DC/AC Inverters
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Parameters Used in PWM Operation
      1. 2.2.1 Modulation Ratios
        1. 2.2.1.1 Linear Range (ma ≤ 1.0)
        2. 2.2.1.2 Over Modulation (1.0 < ma ≤ 3.24)
        3. 2.2.1.3 Square Wave (Sufficiently Large ma > 3.24)
        4. 2.2.1.4 Small mf (mf < 21)
        5. 2.2.1.5 Large m (m > 21)
      2. 2.2.2 Harmonic Parameters
    3. 2.3 Typical PWM Inverters
      1. 2.3.1 Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
      2. 2.3.2 Current Source Inverter (CSI)
      3. 2.3.3 Impedance Source Inverter (z-Source Inverter—ZSI)
      4. 2.3.4 Circuits of DC/AC Inverters
    4. References
  10. 3. Voltage Source Inverters
    1. 3.1 Single-Phase Voltage Source Inverter
      1. 3.1.1 Single-Phase Half-Bridge VSI
      2. 3.1.2 Single-Phase Full-Bridge VSI
    2. 3.2 Three-Phase Full-Bridge VSI
    3. 3.3 Vector Analysis and Determination of ma
      1. 3.3.1 Vector Analysis
      2. 3.3.2 ma Calculation
      3. 3.3.3 ma Calculation with L-C Filter
      4. 3.3.4 Some Waveforms
    4. 3.4 Multistage PWM Inverter
      1. 3.4.1 Unipolar PWM VSI
      2. 3.4.2 Multicell PWM VSI
      3. 3.4.3 Multilevel PWM Inverter
    5. References
  11. 4. Current Source Inverters
    1. 4.1 Three-Phase Full-Bridge Current Source Inverter
    2. 4.2 Boost-Type CSI
      1. 4.2.1 Negative Polarity Input Voltage
      2. 4.2.2 Positive Polarity Input Voltage
    3. 4.3 CSI with L-C Filter
    4. References
  12. 5. Impedance Source Inverters
    1. 5.1 Comparison with VSI and CSI
    2. 5.2 Equivalent Circuit and Operation
    3. 5.3 Circuit Analysis and Calculations
    4. 5.4 Simulation and Experimental Results
    5. References
  13. 6. Quasi-Impedance Source Inverters
    1. 6.1 Introduction to ZSI and Basic Topologies
    2. 6.2 Extended Boost qZSI Topologies
      1. 6.2.1 Diode-Assisted Extended Boost qZSI Topologies
      2. 6.2.2 Capacitor-Assisted Extended Boost qZSI Topologies
      3. 6.2.3 Simulation Results
    3. References
  14. 7. Soft-Switching DC/AC Inverters
    1. 7.1 Notched DC Link Inverters for Brushless DC Motor Drive
      1. 7.1.1 Resonant Circuit
      2. 7.1.2 Design Considerations
      3. 7.1.3 Control Scheme
        1. 7.1.3.1 Non-PWM Operation
        2. 7.1.3.2 PWM Operation
      4. 7.1.4 Simulation and Experimental Results
    2. 7.2 Resonant Pole Inverter
      1. 7.2.1 Topology of Resonant Pole Inverter
      2. 7.2.2 Operation Principle
      3. 7.2.3 Design Considerations
      4. 7.2.4 Simulation and Experimental Results
    3. 7.3 Transformer-Based Resonant DC Link Inverter
      1. 7.3.1 Resonant Circuit
      2. 7.3.2 Design Considerations
      3. 7.3.3 Control Scheme
        1. 7.3.3.1 Full Duty Cycle Operation
        2. 7.3.3.2 PWM Operation
      4. 7.3.4 Simulation and Experimental Results
    4. References
  15. 8. Multilevel DC/AC Inverters
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Diode-Clamped Multilevel Inverters
    3. 8.3 Capacitor-Clamped Multilevel Inverters (Flying Capacitor Inverters)
    4. 8.4 Multilevel Inverters Using H-Bridges (HBs) Converters
      1. 8.4.1 Cascaded Equal Voltage Multilevel Inverters (CEMI)
      2. 8.4.2 Binary Hybrid Multilevel Inverter (BHMI)
      3. 8.4.3 Quasi-Linear Multilevel Inverter (QLMI)
      4. 8.4.4 Trinary Hybrid Multilevel Inverter (THMI)
    5. 8.5 Other Kinds of Multilevel Inverters
      1. 8.5.1 Generalized Multilevel Inverters (GMI)
      2. 8.5.2 Mixed-Level Multilevel Inverter Topologies
      3. 8.5.3 Multilevel Inverters by Connection of Three-Phase Two-Level Inverters
    6. References
  16. 9. Trinary Hybrid Multilevel Inverter (THMI)
    1. 9.1 Topology and Operation
    2. 9.2 Proof of Greatest Number of Output Voltage Levels
      1. 9.2.1 Theoretical Proof
      2. 9.2.2 Comparison of Various Kinds of Multilevel Inverters
      3. 9.2.3 Modulation Strategies for THMI
        1. 9.2.3.1 Step Modulation Strategy
        2. 9.2.3.2 Virtual Stage Modulation Strategy
        3. 9.2.3.3 Hybrid Modulation Strategy
        4. 9.2.3.4 Subharmonic PWM Strategies
        5. 9.2.3.5 Simple Modulation Strategy
      4. 9.2.4 Regenerative Power
        1. 9.2.4.1 Analysis of DC Bus Power Injection
        2. 9.2.4.2 Regenerative Power in THMI
        3. 9.2.4.3 Method to Avoid Regenerative Power
        4. 9.2.4.4 Summary of Regenerative Power in THMI
    3. 9.3 Experimental Results
      1. 9.3.1 Experiment to Verify Step Modulation and Virtual Stage Modulation
      2. 9.3.2 Experiment to Verify New Method to Eliminate Regenerative Power
    4. 9.4 Trinary Hybrid 81-Level Multilevel Inverter
      1. 9.4.1 Space Vector Modulation
      2. 9.4.2 DC Sources of H-Bridges
      3. 9.4.3 Motor Controller
      4. 9.4.4 Simulation and Experimental Results
    5. References
  17. 10. Laddered Multilevel DC/AC Inverters Used in Solar Panel Energy Systems
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Progressions (Series)
      1. 10.2.1 Arithmetic Progressions
        1. 10.2.1.1 Unit Progression
        2. 10.2.1.2 Natural Number Progression
        3. 10.2.1.3 Odd Number Progression
      2. 10.2.2 Geometric Progressions
        1. 10.2.2.1 Binary Progression
        2. 10.2.2.2 Trinary Number Progression
      3. 10.2.3 New Progressions
        1. 10.2.3.1 Luo Progression
        2. 10.2.3.2 Ye Progression
    3. 10.3 Laddered Multilevel DC/AC Inverters
      1. 10.3.1 Special Switches
        1. 10.3.1.1 Toggle Switch
        2. 10.3.1.2 Change-over Switch
        3. 10.3.1.3 Band Switch
      2. 10.3.2 General Circuit of Laddered Inverters
      3. 10.3.3 Linear Laddered Inverters (LLIs)
      4. 10.3.4 Natural Number Laddered Inverters (NNLIs)
      5. 10.3.5 Odd Number Laddered Inverters (ONLIs)
      6. 10.3.6 Binary Laddered Inverters (BLIs)
      7. 10.3.7 Modified Binary Laddered Inverters (MBLIs)
      8. 10.3.8 Luo Progression Laddered Inverters (LPLIs)
      9. 10.3.9 Ye Progression Laddered Inverters (YPLIs)
      10. 10.3.10 Trinary Laddered Inverters (TLIs)
    4. 10.4 Comparison of All Laddered Inverters
    5. 10.5 Solar Panel Energy Systems
    6. 10.6 Simulation and Experimental Results
    7. References
  18. 11. Super-Lift Converter Multilevel DC/AC Inverters Used in Solar Panel Energy Systems
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Super-Lift Converter Used in Multilevel DC/AC Inverters
      1. 11.2.1 Seven-Level SL Inverter
      2. 11.2.2 Fifteen-Level SL Inverter
      3. 11.2.3 Twenty-One-Level SC Inverter
    3. 11.3 Simulation and Experimental Results
    4. References
  19. 12. Switched-Capacitor Multilevel DC/AC Inverters in Solar Panel Energy Systems
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Switched Capacitor Used in Multilevel DC/AC Inverters
      1. 12.2.1 Five-Level SC Inverter
      2. 12.2.2 Nine-Level SC Inverter
      3. 12.2.3 Fifteen-Level SC Inverter
      4. 12.2.4 Higher-Level SC Inverter
    3. 12.3 Simulation and Experimental Results
    4. References
  20. 13. Switched Inductor Multilevel DC/AC Inverters Used in Solar Panel Energy Systems
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Switched Inductor Used in Multilevel DC/AC Inverters
      1. 13.2.1 Five-Level SI Inverter
      2. 13.2.2 Nine-Level SL Inverter
      3. 13.2.3 Fifteen-Level SC Inverter
    3. 13.3 Simulation and Experimental Results
    4. References
  21. 14. Best Switching Angles to Obtain Lowest THD for Multilevel DC/AC Inverters
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Methods for Determination of Switching Angle
      1. 14.2.1 Main Switching Angles
      2. 14.2.2 Equal-Phase (EP) Method
      3. 14.2.3 Half-Equal-Phase (HEP) Method
      4. 14.2.4 Half-Height (HH) Method
      5. 14.2.5 Feed-Forward (FF) Method
      6. 14.2.6 Comparison of Methods in Each Level
      7. 14.2.7 Comparison of Levels for Each Method
      8. 14.2.8 THDs of Different Methods
    3. 14.3 Best Switching Angles
      1. 14.3.1 Using MATLAB® to Obtain Best Switching Angles
      2. 14.3.2 Analysis of Results of Best Switching Angles Calculation
      3. 14.3.3 Output Voltage Waveform for Multilevel Inverters
    4. References
  22. 15. Design Examples for Wind Turbine and Solar Panel Energy Systems
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Wind Turbine Energy Systems
      1. 15.2.1 Technical Features
      2. 15.2.2 Design Example for Wind Turbine Power System
        1. 15.2.2.1 Design Example for Wind Turbine
        2. 15.2.2.2 Design Example for Converters
        3. 15.2.2.3 Simulation Results
    3. 15.3 Solar Panel Energy Systems
      1. 15.3.1 Technical Features
      2. 15.3.2 P/O Super-Lift Luo Converter
      3. 15.3.3 Closed-Loop Control
      4. 15.3.4 PWM Inverter
      5. 15.3.5 System Design
      6. 15.3.6 Simulation Results
    4. References
  23. Index