Optimization is a general term used to describe types of problems and solution techniques that are concerned with the best (“optimal”) allocation of limited resources in projects. The problems are called optimization problems and the methods optimization methods. Typical problems are concerned with planning and making decisions, such as selecting an optimal production plan. A company has to decide how many units of each product from a choice of (distinct) products it should make. The objective of the company may be to maximize overall profit when the different products have different individual profits. In addition, the company faces certain limitations (constraints). It may have a certain number of machines, it takes a certain amount of time and usage of these machines to make a product, it requires a certain number of workers to handle the machines, and other possible criteria. To solve such a problem, you assign the first variable to number of units to be produced of the first product, the second variable to the second product, up to the number of different (distinct) products the company makes. When you multiply these, for example, by the price, you obtain a linear function called the objective function. You also express the constraints in terms of these variables, thereby obtaining several inequalities, called the constraints. ...

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