This appendix describes some important formulas and matrices referred to in the text.
B.1 3D Vectors
B.1.1 Spherical Coordinates
Given a point specified in Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z)T, the spherical coordinates (ρ, θ, φ) consisting of a length and two angles are
Given length ρ, azimuth angle φ, and elevation angle θ (assuming y is up) the Cartesian coordinates of the corresponding unit vector are
For unit vectors, ρ ...