This chapter presents a general description of the machining processes and machining operations using various classification criteria. The classification of machining processes is based on the energy source used and the type of generating mechanisms, whereas the classification of machining operations utilizes characteristic motions describing their kinematics. Some examples of turning, milling, hole making, broaching and threading operations are provided. Kinematics of typical cutting operations and appropriate standardized cutting parameters are described. The geometry of cutting tools in the tool-in-hand and tool-in-use systems, including relevant tool angles, is characterized.