Chapter 3

Fossil Fuels and Alternatives

Abstract

In this chapter fossil fuels and alternatives are presented. Fuels have a major role in modern society, where they act as energy storage media for various applications including heating and power generation. Fossil fuels deplete and their use produces severe atmospheric pollution and induces global warming. Thus, alternatives to fossil fuels aim to seek solutions for energy security and environmental sustainability. In the first part of the chapter, the main categories of fuels are presented, together with the most important physical and chemical properties. Next, fossil fuels are analyzed in detail, starting with coal, which pollutes the atmosphere more than other fossil fuels. Lower and higher heating ...

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