Update on Application
of Response Surface
Methodology-Part I
11
CONTENTS
11.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 121
11.2 Experimental .................................................................................................... 123
11.2.1 Case 1: Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of HBP to PET
Fabrics................................................................................................... 123
11.2.2 Synthesis ............................................................................................... 124
11.2.3 Case 2: Experimental Design and Optimization of Treatment
Conditions ............................................................................................. 127
11.3 Discussion and Results .................................................................................... 130
11.3.1 Synthesis of Hyperbranched Polymer .................................................. 130
11.3.2 FTIR Spectroscopy Characterization .................................................... 130
11.3.3 NMR Spectroscopy Characterization ................................................... 132
11.3.4 UV-vis Spectroscopy ............................................................................ 134
11.3.5 Solubility Properties ............................................................................. 135
11.4 Contact Angle Measurement ........................................................................... 135
11.4.1 HBP Contact Angle .............................................................................. 135
11.4.2 HBP Treated PET Fabrics Contact Angle ............................................. 136
11.5 X-ray Diffraction (XRD) ................................................................................. 136
11.6 Zeta Potential ................................................................................................... 138
11.7 Dyeing Properties of HBP Treated Polyester Fabric ....................................... 139
11.8 Fastness Properties .......................................................................................... 141
11.8.1 HBP Treatment Fastness ....................................................................... 141
11.8.2 Dyeing Fastness .................................................................................... 142
11.9 The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Optimization .................................. 142
11.10 Conclusion ..................................................................................................... 146
Keywords ................................................................................................................. 147
References ................................................................................................................ 147
11.1 INTRODUCTION
In recent years, dendritic polymers have attracted increasing attention due to their
unique chemical and physical properties. These polymers consist of three subsets
122 Advanced Process Control and Simulation for Chemical Engineers
namely hyperbranched polymers (HBPs), dendrigraft polymers, and dendrimers. The
HBPs are highly branched, polydisperse, and 3D macromolecules synthesized from a
multifunctional monomer to produce a molecule with dendritic structure [1-10].
Dendrimers are well-de ned and needed a stepwise route to construct the perfectly
symmetrical structure. Hence, synthesis of dendrimers is time-consuming and expen-
sive procedures. Although HBPs are irregularly shaped and not perfectly symmetrical
like dendrimers, HBPs rapidly prepared and generally synthesized by one-step process
via polyaddition, polycondensation, radical polymerization, and so on, of AB
x
type
monomers and no puri cation steps are needed for their preparation. Therefore, HBPs
are attractive materials for industrial applications due to their simple production pro-
cess [1-4, 11-19]. In general, according to molecular structures and properties, HBPs
represent a transition between linear polymers and perfect dendrimers. Comparison
of HBPs with their linear analogues indicated that HBPs have remarkable properties,
such as low melt and solution viscosity, low chain entanglement, and high solubility,
as a result of the large amount of functional end groups and globular structure [10-16].
In recent years, many functional HBPs with various terminal groups such as hy-
droxyl, amine, carboxyl, acetoxy, and vinyl have been suggested as excellent candi-
date for use in drug delivery [20, 21], gene therapy vectors [21, 22], coatings [23, 24],
additives [25], catalysis [26], gas separation [27], nanotechnology, supramolecular
science [28], and many more.
Some examples of modi cation of bers with HBPs were successful. For instance,
the dyeability of modi ed polypropylene (PP) bers by HBP was investigated [29].
The results showed that the incorporation of HBP prior to ber spinning considerably
improved the color strength of PP ber with C.I. Disperse Blue 56 and has no signi -
cant effect on physical properties of the PP bers.
The synthesized amino-terminated HBP was found to be used as salt-free dyeing
auxiliary for treated cotton fabrics [30]. The washing fastness, rubbing fastness, and
leveling properties of HBP treated cotton fabrics were better than untreated cotton
fabrics. In the study on applying amino-terminated HBP to cotton fabric, it was dem-
onstrated that HBP treatment on cotton fabrics has no undesirable effect on mechani-
cal properties of fabrics. Dyeing of treated cotton fabrics with direct and reactive dyes
in the absence of electrolyte showed that the color strength of treated samples were
better than untreated cotton fabrics. Furthermore, application of HBP to cotton fabrics
reduced UV transmission and showed good antibacterial activities [31-34].
In recent years, there has been considerable research to improve polyethylene tere-
phthalate (PET) fabrics dyeability. It is known that PET fabrics are usually dyed using
disperse dyes in the presence of a carrier or at elevated temperatures. Many attempts
have been made during the last two decades to replace environmentally unfriendly
carriers with non-toxic chemicals [35]. Modi cation of PET fabrics by attaching addi-
tives or functional groups to the polymer molecules via grafting and copolymerization
are the common methods to enhance the dyeability of PET fabrics.
Literature review showed that there has not been a previous report regarding the
treatment of amine terminated HBPs on PET fabric and study of its dyeability with
acid dyes. In the most recent investigation in this eld, ber grade PET was com-
pounded with polyesteramide HBP and dyeability of resulted samples with disperse

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