180 Advanced Process Control and Simulation for Chemical Engineers
1,000–2,000 kg/m
and 5–60 MPa, respectively. Batayneh et al. [10] investigated the
performance of the ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete mix under the effect of
using recycled waste materials, namely glass, plastics, and crushed concrete as a frac-
tion of the aggregates used in the mix. The main ndings of this investigation revealed
that the three types of waste materials could be reused successfully as partial substi-
tutes for sand or coarse aggregates in concrete mixtures. Similarly, the results of Ismail
and Al-Hashmi [11] showed that reusing waste plastic as a sand substitution aggregate
in concrete gives a good approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some of the
solid waste problems posed by plastics. Recently, Albano et al. [12] and Choi et al. [6]
also studied the mechanical behavior of concrete with recycled PET, varying the PET
content. Results indicate that when volume proportion of PET increased in concrete,
showed a decrease in compressive strength, however, the water absorption increased.
The main objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of improvement
results of the studied by Panyakapo and Panyakapo [5] that used of melamine as ther-
mosetting plastics for application into construction materials has been conducted, par-
ticularly for the concrete wall in buildings. Moreover, the characteristics of absorption
and voids have been tested. To study the relationship between mechanical properties
and composite structure, scanning electron microscopy technique was employed. The
ultimate aim of this chapter was to determine the suitable proportion to achieve the
lowest dry density and acceptable compressive strength for non-load-bearing light-
weight concrete according to [1] Type II standard.
The materials used in present study are as follows:
13.2.1 Ordinary Portland Cement
Type I Portland cement conforming to [13] was used.
13.2.2 Sand
Fine aggregate is taken from natural sand. Therefore, it was used after separating by
sieve in accordance with the grading requirement for fine aggregate [14]. The sand ag-
gregates were been saturated surface dry. Therefore, sand aggregates immerse in water
at approximately 21
C for 24 hr and removing surface moisture by warm air bopping.
Table 1 presents the properties of the sand and its gradation is presented in Figure 1.
TABLE 1 Properties of sand and melamine aggregates.
Properties Sand Melamine
density (g/cm
) [5] 2.60 1.574
bulk density (g/cm
) [15] 0.3–0.6
Water absorption (%) 1.64 7.2
Max size (mm) 4.75 1.77
Min size (mm) 0.45

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