Chapter Three

Automated Test Oracles

State of the Art, Taxonomies, and Trends

Rafael A.P. Oliveira*; Upulee Kanewala; Paulo A. Nardi*    * Department of Computer Systems, University of São Paulo (ICMC/USP), São Carlos, SP, Brazil Computer Science Department, Colorado State University (CSU), Fort Collins, Colorado, USA


Test oracle methods have changed significantly over time, which has resulted in clear shifts in the research literature. Over the years, the testing techniques, strategies, and criteria utilized by researchers went through technical developments due to the improvement of technologies and programming languages. Software testing designers, known as testers, currently have several resources to increase their confidence ...

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