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Advances in Concentrating Solar Thermal Research and Technology

Book Description

After decades of research and development, concentrating solar thermal (CST) power plants (also known as concentrating solar power (CSP) and as Solar Thermal Electricity or STE systems) are now starting to be widely commercialized. Indeed, the IEA predicts that by 2050, with sufficient support over ten percent of global electricity could be produced by concentrating solar thermal power plants. However, CSP plants are just but one of the many possible applications of CST systems. Advances in Concentrating Solar Thermal Research and Technology provides detailed information on the latest advances in CST systems research and technology. It promotes a deep understanding of the challenges the different CST technologies are confronted with, of the research that is taking place worldwide to address those challenges, and of the impact that the innovation that this research is fostering could have on the emergence of new CST components and concepts. It is anticipated that these developments will substantially increase the cost-competiveness of commercial CST solutions and reshape the technological landscape of both CST technologies and the CST industry. After an introductory chapter, the next three parts of the book focus on key CST plant components, from mirrors and receivers to thermal storage. The final two parts of the book address operation and control and innovative CST system concepts.

  • Contains authoritative reviews of CST research taking place around the world
  • Discusses the impact this research is fostering on the emergence of new CST components and concepts that will substantially increase the cost-competitiveness of CST power
  • Covers both major CST plant components and system-wide issues

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Related titles
  5. Copyright
  6. List of contributors
  7. Editors’ biographies
  8. Acknowledgment
  9. Part One. Introduction
    1. 1. Introduction to concentrating solar thermal (CST) technologies
      1. 1.1. The sun as an energy source
      2. 1.2. Defining characteristics of CST technologies
      3. 1.3. Thermal efficiency and the need for concentration
      4. 1.4. Limits of concentration
      5. 1.5. Optimum operating temperature to maximize light-to-work conversion efficiency
      6. 1.6. Main commercially available solar concentrating technologies
      7. 1.7. Industry and market trends
      8. 1.8. Research priorities, strategies, and trends
  10. Part Two. Advances in the collection and concentration of sunlight
    1. 2. Advanced mirror concepts for concentrating solar thermal systems
      1. Nomenclature
      2. 2.1. Introduction
      3. 2.2. Anti-soiling coatings
      4. 2.3. High-reflective mirror materials
      5. 2.4. High-temperature mirrors for secondary concentrators
      6. 2.5. Low-cost mirrors based on stainless steel
      7. 2.6. Conclusions
    2. 3. Improved design for linear Fresnel reflector systems
      1. 3.1. Introduction (motivation)
      2. 3.2. Advanced linear Fresnel reflector concentrators
      3. 3.3. Conclusion
  11. Part Three. Advances in the thermal conversion of concentrated sunlight
    1. 4. A new generation of absorber tubes for concentrating solar thermal (CST) systems
      1. 4.1. Introduction
      2. 4.2. Glass cover
      3. 4.3. Steel tube
      4. 4.4. Vacuum maintenance
      5. 4.5. Bellows
      6. 4.6. Conclusion
    2. 5. Innovative working fluids for parabolic trough collectors
      1. 5.1. Introduction
      2. 5.2. Direct steam generation
      3. 5.3. Molten salts
      4. 5.4. Compressed gases
      5. 5.5. Conclusions
    3. 6. A new generation of solid particle and other high-performance receiver designs for concentrating solar thermal (CST) central tower systems
      1. 6.1. Introduction
      2. 6.2. Particle receivers
      3. 6.3. Other high-performance receiver designs
      4. 6.4. Summary and conclusions
    4. 7. Next generation of liquid metal and other high-performance receiver designs for concentrating solar thermal (CST) central tower systems
      1. 7.1. Introduction
      2. 7.2. Thermophysical properties of liquid metals
      3. 7.3. Liquid metals in central receiver systems
      4. 7.4. Innovative power conversion cycles with liquid metals as heat transfer fluid
      5. 7.5. Conclusions and outlook
  12. Part Four. Advances in the power block and thermal storage systems
    1. 8. Supercritical CO2 and other advanced power cycles for concentrating solar thermal (CST) systems
      1. 8.1. Introduction
      2. 8.2. Stand-alone cycles
      3. 8.3. Combined cycles
      4. 8.4. Summary and conclusions
    2. 9. Advances in dry cooling for concentrating solar thermal (CST) power plants
      1. 9.1. Introduction
      2. 9.2. Current cooling technologies for concentrating solar thermal power plants
      3. 9.3. Air-cooled heat exchanger and cooling tower sizing
      4. 9.4. Advances in dry cooling technologies for concentrating solar thermal power plants
      5. 9.5. Conclusions
    3. 10. High-temperature latent heat storage for concentrating solar thermal (CST) systems
      1. 10.1. General introduction
      2. 10.2. Introduction to latent heat storage
      3. 10.3. General challenges for concentrating solar thermal latent heat storage systems
      4. 10.4. Latent heat storage configurations for concentrating solar thermal applications
      5. 10.5. Summary
    4. 11. Thermochemical energy storage for concentrating solar thermal (CST) systems
      1. 11.1. Introduction to thermochemical energy storage
      2. 11.2. General challenges for CST thermochemical storage systems
      3. 11.3. Power plant and chemical plant
      4. 11.4. Le Châtelier's principle and thermochemical energy storage
      5. 11.5. Conclusions
    5. 12. Thermal energy storage concepts for direct steam generation (DSG) solar plants
      1. Nomenclature
      2. 12.1. Introduction
      3. 12.2. Overview on direct steam generation solar plants
      4. 12.3. Basic considerations on thermal energy storage
      5. 12.4. Integration of thermal energy storage systems in direct steam generation solar plants
      6. 12.5. Conclusions
  13. Part Five. Advances in the control an operation of CPS plants
    1. 13. Forecasting and nowcasting of DNI for concentrating solar thermal systems
      1. 13.1. Introduction
      2. 13.2. Main forecasting techniques
      3. 13.3. Forecasting systems for CST power plants
      4. 13.4. Solar radiation forecasting baseline
      5. 13.5. DNI and CST power plants forecasting: main challenges
      6. 13.6. Conclusions
    2. 14. Advanced control strategies to maximize ROI and the value of the concentrating solar thermal (CST) plant to the grid
      1. 14.1. Introduction
      2. 14.2. Optimal operation in solar trough plants
      3. 14.3. Optimization of flux distribution in solar tower plants
      4. 14.4. Conclusions and future works
  14. Part Six. Cost competitive CST plants concepts
    1. 15. Linear Fresnel reflector (LFR) plants using superheated steam, molten salts, and other heat transfer fluids
      1. 15.1. Introduction (motivation)
      2. 15.2. Heat transfer fluids
      3. 15.3. Higher temperatures: molten salts as HTF and thermal energy storage medium
      4. 15.4. Advanced LFR and molten salts: a new concept plant
      5. 15.5. Yearly performance
      6. 15.6. Discussion
      7. 15.7. Conclusions
    2. 16. Central tower systems using the Brayton cycle
      1. 16.1. Introduction and history
      2. 16.2. Solarization of gas turbines
      3. 16.3. Solar gas turbine cycle concepts
      4. 16.4. System components
      5. 16.5. System studies
      6. 16.6. Conclusions
      7. Abbreviations
    3. 17. Solar power towers using supercritical CO2 and supercritical steam cycles, and decoupled combined cycles
      1. 17.1. Introduction
      2. 17.2. Solar power towers with supercritical cycles
      3. 17.3. Decoupled solar combined cycles
      4. 17.4. Summary and conclusions
    4. 18. Solar thermal processing
      1. 18.1. Introduction
      2. 18.2. H2/CO production
      3. 18.3. Material processing and chemical commodity production
      4. 18.4. Other thermal processes
      5. 18.5. Other solar processes
      6. 18.6. Conclusions and future trends
  15. Index