## 18.2. H2/CO production

The processes discussed in this section aim at using concentrated solar energy to produce syngas (H2 and CO). Syngas is a universal feedstock for processes that produce a range of synthetic fuels and solid organic materials. Syngas can be produced from various fossil and non-fossil feedstocks and via several solar process routes. Solar processes are grouped into thermochemical H2O/CO2 splitting processes, hybrid processes using a combination of thermal energy and electricity or a carbonaceous reducing agent, and processes for the conversion and upgrade of carbonaceous feedstocks.

### 18.2.1. Thermochemical H2O/CO2 splitting

#### 18.2.1.1. Thermolysis

The direct thermal dissociation of H2O and CO2 according to:

$H2O(l)→H2+12O2,ΔH°298$

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