18.3. Material processing and chemical commodity production
The high-temperature process heat derived from concentrated solar radiation is suitable for driving highly endothermic processes to process materials and produce chemical commodities. Examples include production of lime and cement, chemical-looping processes for gas separation, extractive metallurgy, recycling of hazardous waste materials, ammonia production via nitride-based cycles, nanomaterial production via ablation, and more.
18.3.1. Calcination of CaCO3
The calcination of limestone (CaCO3) to lime (CaO) according to:
is the main endothermic ...